Insulin

内分泌

关键词内分泌 治疗药物 糖尿病

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Insulin   英 /'ɪnsjʊlɪn/   美 /'ɪnsəlɪn/

释    义   n. [生化][药] 胰岛素

例    句   Check your blood sugar level before and after any activity, especially if you take insulin. 在运动前和后检查你的血糖水平,尤其是,如果你服用了胰岛素。

概述

在胰腺内部,激素胰岛素是在β细胞中产生的,β细胞是朗格汉斯岛的一部分。这些胰岛也具有α细胞,其产生胰高血糖素以及δ细胞。每餐中,β细胞释放胰岛素,帮助身体使用或储存从食物中获取的血糖。胰岛素不能作为一种药丸,因为它会在消化过程中像食物中的蛋白质一样被分解。它必须注入皮肤下的脂肪,才能进入血液。在一些罕见的情况下,胰岛素可导致注射部位的过敏反应。类型快速胰岛素;在注射后约15分钟开始起作用,在约1小时内达到峰值,并继续工作2至4小时。 常规或短效胰岛素:通常在注射后30分钟内到达血流,在注射后

Insulin-induced lipid body accumulation is accompanied by lipid remodelling in model mast cells复制标题

胰岛素诱导的脂质体蓄积伴随着模型肥大细胞的脂质重塑

发表时间:2019-12-01

影响因子:3.5

作者: Johnny T Aldan

期刊:Adipocyte

Metabolic syndrome is associated with a chronic state of hyperinsulinemia, prior to the onset of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Chronic insulin elevation has functional consequences for numerous cells, tissues and organs in the body, including those of the immune system. We have previously shown that chronic insulin elevation alters mast cell functional phenotypes in vitro, and there is in vivo and clinical evidence that altered levels of insulin affect the outcomes of allergic and anaphylactic inflammatory responses. Chronic insulin exposure quantitatively alters the lipid content of mast cells, causes a steatosis-like accumulation of lipid bodies similar to that observed in neutrophils and macrophages under conditions of infection. However, qualitative changes in the cellular profiles of bioactive lipids and their precursors have not been extensively explored. This is an important question arising from the marked effects that lipid remodelling has upon the net pro-and anti-inflammatory capacity of cells such as mast cells. Most lipid mediators that been shown to regulate inflammation are derived from omega-6 (n-6) or omega3 (n-3) fatty acids. These mediators include arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Oxidation catalyzed by cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, or cytochrome P450 forms the bioactive metabolite from these precursors. Acute changes in cellular status have been shown to remodel key lipid populations in mast cells and other immune cells, changing the outcome of mast cell activation and in some cases switching the cell between a pro-inflammation and a pro-resolution phenotype. Several studies have evaluated the location of the bioactive lipid precursor AA in mast cells, evaluating distribution between membrane phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS)) and free fatty acid (FFA) forms of AA. The distribution within these pools changes in response to mast cell activation in response to both calcium ionophore and FcεRI stimulation. These changes are functionally important as the location of the AA changes its proximity and availability to phospholipases that are concomitantly activated and catalyse pathways leading to synthesis of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, HETEs, resolvins and endocannabinoids. Similarly, functional importance is ascribed to the ratios between omega-3 and omega-6-fatty acids and the abundance of DHA and EPA pools. These are precursors for inflammation resolving factors (protectins, resolvins, and maresins). Since n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are generally regarded as pro-inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory, respectively, the cellular abundance of these forms in mast cells has consequences for tissue inflammatory responses.

译文

在2型糖尿病发作之前,代谢综合征与高胰岛素血症的慢性状态有关。慢性胰岛素升高对体内许多细胞,组织和器官(包括免疫系统的细胞,组织和器官)产生功能性后果。我们以前已经表明,慢性胰岛素升高会在体外改变肥大细胞功能表型,并且体内和临床证据表明,改变的胰岛素水平会影响过敏性和过敏性炎症反应的结果。慢性胰岛素暴露会定量改变肥大细胞的脂质含量,导致类似于感染中性粒细胞和巨噬细胞中观察到的脂质体的脂肪变性样堆积。但是,尚未广泛探索生物活性脂质及其前体的细胞概况的质变。这是一个重要的问题,是由于脂质重塑对肥大细胞等细胞的净促炎和抗炎能力产生了明显的影响。已显示大多数调节炎症的脂质介体均来自omega-6(n-6)或omega3(n-3)脂肪酸。这些介体包括花生四烯酸(AA; 20:4n-6),亚油酸(LA; 18:2n6),二十碳五烯酸(EPA; 20:5n-3)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA; 22:6n-3)。环氧合酶,脂氧合酶或细胞色素P450催化的氧化作用由这些前体形成生物活性代谢物。细胞状态的急性变化已显示出可以重塑肥大细胞和其他免疫细胞中的关键脂质种群,从而改变肥大细胞活化的结果,并在某些情况下改变细胞在促炎症和促分辨表型之间的转换。数项研究评估了肥大细胞中生物活性脂质前体AA的位置,评估了膜磷脂(磷脂酰胆碱(PC),磷脂酰乙醇胺(PE)和磷脂酰丝氨酸(PS))和游离脂肪酸(FFA)形式的AA之间的分布。这些池中的分布响应于钙离子载体和FcεRI刺激而响应于肥大细胞活化而改变。这些变化在功能上很重要,因为AA的位置会改变其与磷脂酶的接近度和可用性,而磷脂酶会同时被激活并催化导致前列腺素,白三烯,血栓烷,HETE,Resolvins和内源性大麻素合成的途径。同样,功能重要性归因于omega-3和omega-6脂肪酸之间的比率以及DHA和EPA池的丰富度。这些是炎症解决因子(保护素,resolvins和maresins)的前体。由于n-6和n-3脂肪酸通常分别被视为促炎和抗炎,肥大细胞中这些形式的细胞丰度对组织的炎症反应具有影响。