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Glucose Homeostasis

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语 血糖平衡

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

glucose   英 /'gluːkəʊs; -z/   美 /'ɡlukos/

释    义   n. 葡萄糖;葡糖(等于dextrose)

例    句   This gene controls the glucose consumption of cells and so provides the fuel by which they grow and multiply. 这个基因控制着细胞对葡萄糖的消耗,这样它们可以获得提供给他们生长和繁殖的燃料。

 

homeostasis   英 /,hɒmɪə(ʊ)'steɪsɪs; ,həʊm-/   美/,homɪə'stesɪs/

释    义   n. [生理] 体内平衡;[自] 内稳态

例    句   The balance between cell survival and apoptosis is crucial for normal development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. 细胞存活与凋亡之间的平衡是多细胞生物正常发育与稳态的关键。

概述

葡萄糖稳态依赖于两种激素:胰岛素和胰高血糖素的平衡和相互作用,以维持健康的血糖水平。重要性将血糖维持在正常范围内称为葡萄糖体内平衡。大脑和神经系统完全依赖葡萄糖作为燃料,并且始终需要稳定的葡萄糖供应。至关重要的是,血糖浓度应保持在70至110 mg/dL的范围内,以便为大脑和神经系统提供足够的燃料。低血糖可导致头晕或注意力不集中等症状,而随着时间的推移,高血糖会损害血管和神经。肝脏的作用肝脏在血糖稳态中起着关键作用。饭后当血糖高时,肝脏有能力从血液中去除葡萄糖并将其作为一种叫做糖原的分子的一

Brown adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis-the link between climate change and the global rise in obesity and diabetes复制标题

棕色脂肪组织和葡萄糖稳态 -- 气候变化与全球肥胖和糖尿病上升之间的联系

发表时间:2019-12-01

影响因子:3.5

作者: Michael E Symonds

期刊:Adipocyte

There is increasing evidence that the global rise in temperature is contributing to the onset of diabetes, which could be mediated by a concomitant reduction in brown fat activity. Brown (and beige) fat are characterised as possessing a unique mitochondrial protein uncoupling protein (UCP)1 that when activated can rapidly generate large amounts of heat. Primary environmental stimuli of UCP1 include cold-exposure and diet, leading to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and large amounts of lipid and glucose being oxidised by brown fat. The exact contribution remains controversial, although recent studies indicate that the amount of brown and beige fat in adult humans has been greatly underestimated. We therefore review the potential mechanisms by which glucose could be utilised within brown and beige fat in adult humans and the extent to which these are sensitive to temperature and diet. This includes the potential contribution from the peridroplet and cytoplasmic mitochondrial sub-fractions recently identified in brown fat, and whether a proportion of glucose oxidation could be UCP1-independent. It is thus predicted that as new methods are developed to assess glucose metabolism by brown fat, a more accurate determination of the thermogenic and non-thermogenic functions could be feasible in humans.

译文

越来越多的证据表明,全球温度升高有助于糖尿病的发作,这可能是伴随着棕色脂肪活动的减少所致。棕色(和米色)脂肪的特征在于具有独特的线粒体蛋白解偶联蛋白(UCP)1,其在被激活时可以快速产生大量的热量。 UCP1的主要环境刺激包括冷暴露和饮食,导致交感神经系统活性增加和大量脂质和葡萄糖被棕色脂肪氧化。确切的贡献仍然存在争议,尽管最近的研究表明,成年人中棕色和米色脂肪的含量被大大低估了。因此,我们回顾了成年人在棕色和米色脂肪中使用葡萄糖的潜在机制,以及这些机制对温度和饮食敏感的程度。这包括最近在棕色脂肪中鉴定的peridroplet和细胞质线粒体亚组分的潜在贡献,以及一定比例的葡萄糖氧化是否可以是UCP1非依赖性的。因此预测,随着开发新方法以评估棕色脂肪的葡萄糖代谢,更准确地确定产热和非产热功能在人类中是可行的。