摘要

The autoimmune diseases are more common in females. The sex hormones have an important role in this gender bias, mainly estrogen and prolactin (PRL) which modulate the immune response. PRL is secreted from the pituitary gland and other organs and cells mainly the lymphocytes. PRL has an immunostimulatory effect and promotes autoimmunity: PRL impairs the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes occurring during B cell maturation into fully functional B cells. PRL has an anti-apoptotic effect, enhances proliferative response to antigens and mitogens and enhances the production of immunoglobulins and autoantibodies. Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) is observed in multi-organ and organ specific autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and multiple sclerosis (MS). There is no consistent correlation between PRL levels and disease activity. Murine models and small studies in SLE patients suggest some role of dopamine agonists in the therapy of those diseases. The genetic factor may have a role in humans as in animal models. The PRL isoform has an important effect on the bioactivity on prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs).

译文

自身免疫性疾病在女性中更常见。性激素在这种性别偏见中起着重要作用,主要是调节免疫反应的雌激素和催乳素 (PRL)。PRL 是由垂体和其他器官和细胞分泌的,主要是淋巴细胞。PRL 具有免疫刺激作用并促进自身免疫: PRL 损害在 b细胞成熟过程中发生的自身反应性 B 淋巴细胞的阴性选择,使其成为功能齐全的 b细胞。PRL 具有抗凋亡作用,增强对抗原和有丝分裂原的增殖反应,并增强免疫球蛋白和自身抗体的产生。高催乳素血症 (HPRL) 在多器官和器官特异性自身免疫性疾病中观察到,如系统性红斑狼疮 (SLE) 、类风湿性关节炎 (RA) 、干燥综合征 (SS), 桥本甲状腺炎 (HT) 和多发性硬化症 (MS)。PRL 水平和疾病活动度之间没有一致的相关性。小鼠模型和对 SLE 患者的小型研究表明多巴胺激动剂在这些疾病的治疗中的一些作用。遗传因素可能在人类中起作用,就像在动物模型中一样。PRL 亚型对催乳素受体 (PRL-Rs) 的生物活性有重要影响。

Hyperprolactinemia

内分泌 催乳激素水平升高 疾病
概述  :  

高催乳素血症是以血液中称为催乳激素的激素水平高为特征的状态。催乳素是由垂体产生的,在怀孕期间乳房的发育中起着至关重要的作用。虽然高催乳素血症在怀孕和哺乳期间被认为是完全正常的,但由于疾病和药物使用,它可能在其他时间发生。高催乳素血症可影响男性和女性,导致月经不调和勃起功能障碍。病理原因高催乳素血症的一个常见原因是垂体上的肿瘤,称为催乳素瘤,肿瘤可产生高水平的催乳激素。这些肿瘤可大可小,通常是良性的,这意味着它们没有癌变。大型肿瘤也可能导致头痛,视力问题或两者兼而有之。催乳素瘤在女性中比在男性

Hyperprolactinemia

释    义   n. 乳素血症;[内科] 高泌乳素血症

例    句   Hyperprolactinemia is one of the common diseases to cause the amenorrhea, galactorrhea and dysgenesis. 高催乳素血症是引起闭经、溢乳、不孕等常见疾病之一。

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