Extracellular 英 /ekstrə'seljʊlə/ 美 /,ɛkstrə'sɛljʊlɚ/
释 义 adj. （位于或发生于）[生物] 细胞外的（副词extracellularly）
例 句 At the bottom right, orally-active compounds against more conventional extracellular targets is a tricky one. 右下角，口腔活性化合物对抗传统的细胞外靶点是一个棘手的问题。
释 义 n. 囊泡；小水泡（vesicle的复数）
例 句 Zhu had a simpler idea: He dumped a high concentration of micelles-small balls of huddled fatty acids- into a suspension of vesicles. 朱先生有个更简便的主意：将高浓度的微胞倾入囊泡悬浮液中，那些微胞是由脂肪酸凝集成的小球。
作者： Sophie A. Dusoswa
期刊：J Extracell Vesicles
Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and aggressive primary brain tumour for which total tumour lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination is currently under clinical evaluation. Glioblastoma extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent an enriched cell-free source of tumour-associated (neo-) antigens to pulse dendritic cells (DCs) for the initiation of an anti-tumour immune response. Capture and uptake of EVs by DCs could occur in a receptor-mediated and presumably glycan-dependent way, yet the glycan composition of glioblastoma EVs is unknown. Here, we set out to characterize the glycocalyx composition of glioblastoma EVs by lectin-binding ELISA and comprehensive immunogold transmission electron microscopy (immuno-TEM). The surface glycan profile of human glioblastoma cell line-derived EVs (50-200 nm) was dominated by α-2,3- and α-2,6 linked sialic acid-capped complex N-glycans and bi-antennary N-glycans. Since sialic acids can trigger immune inhibitory sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) receptors, we screened for Siglec ligands on the EVs. Glioblastoma EVs showed significant binding to Siglec-9, which is highly expressed on DCs. Surprisingly, however, glioblastoma EVs lack glycans that could bind Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), a receptor that mediates uptake and induction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation.