摘要

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound particles that are naturally released from cells. They are recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Because of their capacity to carry biological macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, EVs influence different physiological and pathological functions of both parental and recipient cells. Although multiple pathways have been proposed for cytokine secretion beyond the classical ER/Golgi route, EVs have recently recognized as an alternative secretory mechanism. Interestingly, cytokines/chemokines exploit these vesicles to be released into the extracellular milieu, and also appear to modulate their release, trafficking and/or content. In this review, we provide an overview of the cytokines/chemokines that are known to be associated with EVs or their regulation with a focus on TNFα, IL-1β and IFNs.

译文

胞外囊泡 (EVs) 是细胞自然释放的小膜结合颗粒。它们被认为是原核生物和真核生物细胞间通讯的有效载体。由于其携带蛋白质、脂质和核酸等生物大分子的能力,EVs 影响亲代细胞和受体细胞不同的生理和病理功能。尽管已经提出了超越经典 ER/高尔基体途径的细胞因子分泌的多种途径,但 EVs 最近被认为是一种替代的分泌机制。有趣的是,细胞因子/趋化因子利用这些囊泡释放到细胞外环境中,并似乎调节它们的释放、运输和/或含量。在这篇综述中,我们概述了已知与 EVs 或其调控相关的细胞因子/趋化因子,重点关注 tnf α 、 IL-1 β 和 IFNs。

extracellular vesicles

肿瘤 EVs、液体活检 临床研究术语
概述  :  

细胞外囊泡(EVs)是指从细胞膜上脱落或者由细胞分泌的双层膜结构的囊泡状小体,直径从40 nm到1000 nm不等。胞外囊泡主要由微囊泡(Microvesicles,  MVs)和外泌体(Exosomes, Exs)组成,微囊泡是细胞激活、损伤或凋亡后从细胞膜脱落的小囊泡,直径约为100 nm-1000 nm。EVs最初仅被视作细胞的“垃圾袋”,用于清除不必要的大分子,但现在其被认为是细胞间信号的运载体,可用于细胞间通讯。EVs表面蛋白信号分

Extracellular   英 /ekstrə'seljʊlə/   美 /,ɛkstrə'sɛljʊlɚ/

释    义   adj. (位于或发生于)[生物] 细胞外的(副词extracellularly)

例    句   At the bottom right, orally-active compounds against more conventional extracellular targets is a tricky one. 右下角,口腔活性化合物对抗传统的细胞外靶点是一个棘手的问题。

 

Vesicles 

释    义   n. 囊泡;小水泡(vesicle的复数)

例    句   Zhu had a simpler idea: He dumped a high concentration of micelles-small balls of huddled fatty acids- into a suspension of vesicles. 朱先生有个更简便的主意:将高浓度的微胞倾入囊泡悬浮液中,那些微胞是由脂肪酸凝集成的小球。

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