释 义 n. 失巢凋亡现象；失巢凋亡；
例 句 Similarly, in a mouse model of ovarian cancer, restraint stress and the associated increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine protected the tumor cells from anoikis and promoted their growth. 同样，在卵巢癌小鼠模型中，抑制应激和相关的去甲肾上腺素和肾上腺素增加可防止肿瘤细胞发生失巢凋亡，从而促进肿瘤生长。
作者： Chayanin Kiratipaiboon
期刊：Environ Sci Nano
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a key driver of tumor formation and metastasis, but how they are affected by nanomaterials is largely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of different carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) on neoplastic and CSC-like transformation of human small airway epithelial cells and determined the underlying mechanisms. Using a physiologically relevant exposure model (long-term/low-dose) with system validation using a human carcinogen, asbestos, we demonstrated that single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, ultrafine carbon black, and crocidolite asbestos induced particle-specific anchorage-independent colony formation, DNA-strand break, and p53 downregulation, indicating genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential of CNMs. The chronic CNM-exposed cells exhibited CSC-like properties as indicated by 3D spheroid formation, anoikis resistance, and CSC markers expression. Mechanistic studies revealed specific self-renewal and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcription factors that are involved in the cellular transformation process. Pathway analysis of gene signaling networks supports the role of SOX2 and SNAI1 signaling in CNM-mediated transformation. These findings support the potential carcinogenicity of high aspect ratio CNMs and identified molecular targets and signaling pathways that may contribute to the disease development.