Tumor 英 /'tju:mə(r)/ 美 /'tjʊmɚ/
释 义 n. 肿瘤；肿块；赘生物
例 句 Therefore, this effect may be one of the mechanisms of anti-tumor. 因此，这一作用可能是其抗肿瘤作用机理之一。
Necrosis 英 /ne'krəʊsɪs/ 美 /nɛ'krosɪs/
释 义 n. 坏死；坏疽；骨疽；复数 necroses
同根词 necrotic adj. [病理] 坏死的；骨疽的，坏疽的；necrobiosis n. 渐进性坏死；necrose vi. 陷于坏死；necrose vt. 使…陷于坏死
例 句 From this point, necrosis of the femoral head universal knowledge is very important. 从这一点来说，普及股骨头坏死的知识是十分重要的。
Factor 英 /'fæktə/ 美 /'fæktɚ/
释 义 n. 因素；要素；[物] 因数；代理人；vi. 做代理商；vt. 把…作为因素计入；代理经营；把…分解成
同根词 factory n. 工厂；制造厂；代理店；factoring n. [数] 因子分解，[数] 因式分解；保付代理；factorization n. [数] 因子分解；[数] 因式分解；factoring v. 把…因素包括进去（factor的ing形式）；factorize vt. 因式分解；把复杂计算分解为基本运算
例 句 But this cannot be the only factor. 但这不可能是唯一的因素。
作者： Natalia Becares
期刊：Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
Methods: Plasma samples were collected on days 1, 5, 10, and 15 from participants recruited into the albumin to prevent infection in chronic liver failure feasibility study. Patients with acute decompensated cirrhosis were given albumin infusions at 10 hospitals in the United Kingdom. Data were obtained from 45 survivors and 27 non-survivors. We incubated monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy individuals with patients’ plasma samples and measured activation following lipopolysaccharide administration, determined by secretion of tumor necrosis factor and soluble mediators of inflammation. Each analysis included samples from 4 to 14 patients. Results: Plasma samples from survivors vs non-survivors had different inflammatory profiles. Levels of prostaglandin E2 were high at times of patient hospitalization and decreased with albumin infusions. Increased levels of interleukin 4 (IL4) in plasma collected at day 5 of treatment were associated with survival at 3 months. Incubation of monocyte-derived macrophages with day 5 plasma from survivors, pre-incubated with a neutralizing antibody against IL4, caused a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor production to the level of non-survivor plasma. Although baseline characteristics were similar, non-survivors had higher white cell counts and levels of C-reactive protein and renal dysfunction.