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首页 > 医学词汇大全 > endocytosis
endocytosis

肿瘤

关键词肿瘤 临床研究术语 机制与治疗

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Endocytosis   英 /,endəʊsaɪ'təʊsɪs/   美 /,ɛndosaɪ'tosɪs/

释    义   n. [细胞] 内吞作用;复数 endocytoses

例    句   The established view in cellular biology dictates that the cellular internalization of hydrophilic macromolecules can only be achieved through the classical endocytosis pathway. 传统细胞生物学的观点认为:亲水性大分子只能通过经典的胞吞作用才能实现细胞内在化。

概述

在细胞的新陈代谢过程中,不断有各种物质进出细胞,这些物质包括一些离子、小分子物质、大分子物质及一些颗粒物质。大分子物质及颗粒性物质不能穿过细胞膜,是以另外一种特殊方式来进行跨细胞膜转运的,以及物质在进出细胞的转运过程中都是由膜包裹、形成囊泡、与膜融合或断裂使细胞外物质进入细胞内。这就是目前公认的生物体摄取生物大分子的主要途径-内吞作用。内吞作用,又叫入胞作用或胞吞作用,是指真核生物细胞通过在质膜位置处形成囊泡从细胞外部环境吸收营养物质的过程,细胞的内吞作用使得细胞外的大分子物质得以内化从而进

Brief update on endocytosis of nanomedicines复制标题

纳米药物的内吞作用的简要更新

发表时间:2019-08-13

影响因子:15.5

作者: Siddharth Patel

期刊:Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.

The complexity of nanoscale interactions between biomaterials and cells has limited the realization of the ultimate vision of nanotechnology in diagnostics and therapeutics. As such, significant effort has been devoted to advancing our understanding of the biophysical interactions of the myriad nanoparticles. Endocytosis of nanomedicine has drawn tremendous interest in the last decade. Here, we highlight the ever-present barriers to efficient intracellular delivery of nanoparticles as well as the current advances and strategies deployed to breach these barriers. We also introduce new barriers that have been largely overlooked such as the glycocalyx and macromolecular crowding. Additionally, we draw attention to the potential complications arising from the disruption of the newly discovered functions of the lysosomes. Novel strategies of exploiting the inherent intracellular defects in disease states to enhance delivery and the use of exosomes for bioanalytics and drug delivery are explored. Furthermore, we discuss the advances in imaging techniques like electron microscopy, super resolution fluorescence microscopy, and single particle tracking which have been instrumental in our growing understanding of intracellular pathways and nanoparticle trafficking. Finally, we advocate for the push towards more intravital analysis of nanoparticle transport phenomena using the multitude of techniques available to us.

译文

生物材料和细胞之间纳米级相互作用的复杂性限制了纳米技术在诊断和治疗中的最终愿景的实现。因此,我们致力于推动我们对无数纳米粒子的生物物理相互作用的理解。在过去十年中,纳米医学的内吞作用引起了极大的兴趣。在这里,我们强调了纳米粒子有效细胞内递送的一直存在的障碍,以及目前用于突破这些障碍的进展和策略。我们还引入了很大程度上被忽视的新障碍,例如糖萼和大分子拥挤。此外,我们提请注意由于新发现的溶酶体功能的破坏而引起的潜在并发症。探索了利用疾病状态中固有的细胞内缺陷以增强递送和使用外泌体进行生物分析和药物递送的新策略。此外,我们讨论了成像技术的进步,如电子显微镜,超分辨率荧光显微镜和单粒子跟踪,这些都有助于我们对细胞内通路和纳米粒子运输的理解。最后,我们提倡使用我们可用的多种技术推动纳米颗粒运输现象的更多活体分析。