Tumor 英 /'tju:mə(r)/ 美 /'tjʊmɚ/
释 义 n. 肿瘤；肿块；赘生物
例 句 Human tumor cells expressed high levels of growth factor and its receptor . 人类肿瘤细胞表达高水平的生长因子及其受体。
Immune 英 /ɪ'mjuːn/ 美 /ɪ'mjʊn/
释 义 adj. 免疫的；免于……的，免除的；n. 免疫者；免除者
同根词 immunized adj. 免疫的；immunochemical adj. 免疫化学的；immunity n. 免疫力；豁免权；免除；immunization n. 免疫；immunisation n. 免疫；免疫法；
例 句 "If it works as what we see (in) the immune responses in animals, I think we have a fairly good chance of developing a vaccine that works, " he said in an interview. “如果它能够像我们在动物试验中看到的那样对免疫应答发挥作用，我想我们将有很好的机会去研发一种能够起效的疫苗，”他在采访中说。
Escape 英 /ɪ'skeɪp; e-/ 美 /ɪˈskep/
释 义 vt. 逃避，避开，避免；被忘掉；被忽视；vi. 逃脱；避开；溜走；（气体，液体等）漏出；（未受伤或只受了一点伤害而）逃脱；声音（不自觉地）由…发出；n. 逃跑；逃亡；逃走；逃跑工具或方法；野生种；泄漏
同根词 escaped adj. 逃走的；逸出的；escapist adj. 逃避现实的；escapement n. 擒纵机构棘轮装置；脱逃；逃亡的出口；卡子；escapism n. 逃避现实，空想；逃避主义；
例 句 How can I escape from all of this? 我怎样才能逃离这些呢？
作者： Veronica Huber
期刊：Semin. Cancer Biol.
One main driver of the metabolic reprogramming occurring in the TME is undoubtedly represented by hypoxia. Cells of both innate and adaptive immunity are highly sensitive to the hypoxic microenvironment featuring most solid cancers, sensing low oxygen availability mainly by the HIF transcriptional system and via other molecular mechanisms. Hypoxia has been shown to regulate aggregation, invasion and motility of macrophages and neutrophils, favoring local inflammation and immunosuppression. Low oxygen tension can also affect T cell differentiation and function, possibly tilting the balance toward a T helper (Th)17/Treg phenotype, and impair cytotoxic properties of NK cells. Of note, hypoxia upregulates immune checkpoints in the TME, promoting tumor immune escape but also increasing the expression of molecular targets for cancer immunotherapy. The multiple and complex hypoxia-driven pathways affecting tumor immune surveillance, that are recently gaining special attention as potential targets of immunomodulation in cancer, have been elegantly and extensively addressed in dedicated reviews.