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tumor microenvironment

肿瘤

关键词肿瘤 临床研究术语 基础研究

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Tumor   英 /'tju:mə(r)/   美 /'tjʊmɚ/

释    义   n. 肿瘤;肿块;赘生物

例    句   To evaluate the role of lung lobectomy in the patients of tumor with lung metastases. 目的是探讨肺叶切除术在肺转移瘤治疗中的作用。

 

Microenvironment   /'maɪkroɪn'vaɪrənmənt/

释    义   n. [生态] 微环境;[生态] 小环境

例    句   Such manipulations of the microenvironment could offer new directions for cancer treatment, he said. 他说,这种对微环境的操作可能为癌症治疗提供新方向,

概述

肿瘤细胞和肿瘤间质细胞的相互作用形成独特的肿瘤微环境,简写为TME,简单说,肿瘤细胞产生和生活的内环境就是肿瘤微环境。在100多年前,Stephen Paget基于乳腺癌的器官特异性转移中的临床观察,提出了著名的“种子与土壤”的概念。然而,这一假说在当时并未受到足够的重视。直到最近,才有越来越多的科学家意识到肿瘤与肿瘤微环境是一个不可分割的整体。肿瘤微环境就像是一个小的生态环境,与其中的肿瘤细胞有着密切的联系。肿瘤微环境主要由非癌细胞成分、分泌型可溶性因子以及非细胞固态结构成分构成,通常由胶

Unraveling the crosstalk between melanoma and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment复制标题

解开肿瘤微环境中黑色素瘤与免疫细胞间的串扰

发表时间:2019-08-09

影响因子:9.7

作者: Monica Marzagalli

期刊:Semin. Cancer Biol.

CAFs are known to promote cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and other findings demonstrated that these cells can participate to the evolution of an immunosuppressive environment, both within the tumor bulk and in metastatic niches, through the release of immune-modulatory factors. It has been recently demonstrated that melanoma-derived extracellular vesicles can induce a pro-inflammatory signature in lung fibroblasts (upregulation of cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, CXCL10, CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5), thus enhancing the recruitment of myeloid-derived cells such as neutrophils. Moreover, pro-inflammatory pathways, eventually associated with BRAF mutations, can in turn induce the expression of PD-1 ligands and COX-2 on CAFs, contributing to the immune suppression. CAFs can favor immune escape through the secretion of MMPs and of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ), decreasing NK-mediated lysis of melanoma cells mediated by a decreased surface expression of the activating receptor NKp44. T cell functions can be also affected by CAFs: the secretion of cytokines (i.e., CXCL5) can induce the expression of PD-1 on cancer cells, and the CAF-mediated metabolic stress of CD8+ T cells limits their functions against tumor cells. The following section will highlight the mechanisms exploited by melanoma cells to communicate with cells of the tumor microenvironment in order to promote an immunosuppressive setting.

译文

已知CAF促进癌细胞增殖和侵袭,并且其他发现证明这些细胞可通过释放免疫调节因子参与免疫抑制环境的进化,所述免疫抑制环境在肿瘤体内和转移性龛中。最近已经证实,黑素瘤衍生的细胞外囊泡可以在肺成纤维细胞中诱导促炎特征(细胞因子和趋化因子的上调,包括IL-1α,IL-1β,CXCL10,CXCL1,CCL2,CCL3和CCL5),从而增强骨髓来源的细胞如中性粒细胞的募集。此外,最终与BRAF突变相关的促炎途径可以反过来诱导CAF上PD-1配体和COX-2的表达,从而有助于免疫抑制。 CAF可通过MMP和前列腺素E2(PGE 2)的分泌促进免疫逃逸,从而减少NK介导的黑素瘤细胞裂解,其由活化受体NKp44的表面表达降低介导。 T细胞功能也可受CAF影响:细胞因子(即CXCL5)的分泌可诱导癌细胞上PD-1的表达,并且CAF介导的CD8 + T细胞的代谢应激限制了它们对抗肿瘤细胞的功能。以下部分将突出黑色素瘤细胞利用与肿瘤微环境细胞通信的机制,以促进免疫抑制环境。