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multidrug resistance

肿瘤

关键词肿瘤 临床研究术语 抗肿瘤药物

词汇介绍

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解析

Multidrug 

释    义   n. 多药

例    句   The essence of the elimination strategy to cure leprosy, avoid disability andreduce the disease burden is to detect all patients as early as possible, and to treat them with multidrug treatment. 为治愈麻风、避免残疾和减轻疾病负担所制定的消灭战略,其精髓在于及早发现所有患者,并对他们采用多药性疗法进行治疗。

 

Resistance   英 /rɪ'zɪst(ə)ns/   美 /rɪ'zɪstəns/

释    义   n. 阻力;电阻;抵抗;反抗;抵抗力;复数 resistances

同根词   resistant adj. 抵抗的,反抗的;顽固的;resistive adj. 有抵抗力的;resistible adj. 可抵抗的;resistless adj. 无抵抗力的;无法抗拒的;resist [助剂] n. 抗蚀剂;防染剂;resistant n. 抵抗者;

例    句   You have the ability to look here where there is not resistance. 你有能力在没有阻力的地方观察。

概述

1970年,Biedle和Riehm用P388白血病细胞等与更生霉素(ACD)接触培养,观察到肿瘤细胞不但对ACD耐药,而且对结构不相似的药物,如柔红霉素和长春花碱也产生耐药,从而首先发现了多药耐药性现象。肿瘤多药耐药简写为MDR,是指肿瘤细胞对一种抗肿瘤药物产生抗药性的同时,对结构和作用机制不同的抗肿瘤药物产生交叉耐药性。典型的MDR指针对天然来源的抗肿瘤药物如阿霉素、柔红霉素、长春新碱、长春花碱、秋水仙碱、紫杉醇、依托泊甙、替尼泊甙等产生的交叉抗药性。MDR是肿瘤化疗失败的主要原因。也是

Repurposing approved drugs on the pathway to novel therapies复制标题

将批准的药物重新用于新疗法的途径

发表时间:2019-08-20

影响因子:9.8

作者: Catherine H. Schein

期刊:Med Res Rev

The time and cost of developing new drugs have led many groups to limit their search for therapeutics to compounds that have previously been approved for human use. Many "repurposed" drugs, such as derivatives of thalidomide, antibiotics, and antivirals have had clinical success in treatment areas well beyond their original approved use. These include applications in treating antibiotic-resistant organisms, viruses, cancers and to prevent burn scarring. The major theoretical justification for reusing approved drugs is that they have known modes of action and controllable side effects. Coadministering antibiotics with inhibitors of bacterial toxins or enzymes that mediate multidrug resistance can greatly enhance their activity. Drugs that control host cell pathways, including inflammation, tumor necrosis factor, interferons, and autophagy, can reduce the "cytokine storm" response to injury, control infection, and aid in cancer therapy. An active compound, even if previously approved for human use, will be a poor clinical candidate if it lacks specificity for the new target, has poor solubility or can cause serious side effects. Synergistic combinations can reduce the dosages of the individual components to lower reactivity. Preclinical analysis should take into account that severely ill patients with comorbidities will be more sensitive to side effects than healthy trial subjects.

译文

开发新药的时间和成本使许多团体将他们对治疗药物的研究限制在以前批准用于人类的化合物中。许多“改变用途”的药物,例如沙利度胺衍生物,抗生素和抗病毒药物,在治疗领域取得了临床成功,远远超出了原来的批准用途。这些包括用于治疗抗生素抗性生物,病毒,癌症和预防烧伤疤痕的应用。重新使用已批准药物的主要理论依据是它们具有已知的作用方式和可控的副作用。共同施用抗生素与细菌毒素抑制剂或介导多药耐药性的酶可以大大增强其活性。控制宿主细胞通路的药物,包括炎症,肿瘤坏死因子,干扰素和自噬,可以减少“细胞因子风暴”对损伤的反应,控制感染,并有助于癌症治疗。即使以前批准用于人类使用,活性化合物如果缺乏对新靶标的特异性,溶解性差或可能引起严重的副作用,将是不良临床候选药物。协同组合可以减少各个组分的剂量以降低反应性。临床前分析应考虑到患有合并症的重症患者对副作用的敏感性要高于健康试验受试者。