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genetically modified mice

肿瘤

关键词肿瘤 动物模型 转基因

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Genetically   英 /dʒəˈnetɪkli/   美 /dʒə'nɛtɪklɪ/

释    义   adv. 从遗传学角度;从基因方面

例    句   These attributes are genetically programmed functions of normal cells that are intended to combat infection or repair injury. 这些属性是正常细胞的基因编程功能,此举的目的是抗击感染或修复损伤。

 

Modified   英 /ˈmɒdɪfaɪd/   美 /mɑdəˌfaɪd/

释    义   adj. 改进的,修改的;改良的

               v. 修改;缓和(modify的过去分词)

同根词   modifiable adj. 可修饰的;可更改的

               modification n. 修改,修正;改变

               modify vi. 修改

               modify vt. 修改,修饰;更改

例    句   Its systems move virtual models of prototype machinery and products around manufacturing plants to determine how existing equipment would have to be moved or modified. 该系统将原型机械与产品的虚拟模型在制造厂内到处移动,以决定现有的设备需要怎样的移动或改进。

 

Mice   英 /maɪs/   美 /maɪs/

释    义   n. 老鼠(mouse的复数)

例    句   So Tsai decided to see if they would have any effect on her mice with damaged brain cells.所以蔡决定看看它们是否会对她的脑细胞受损的老鼠有任何影响。

概述

转基因小鼠是指染色体基因组中整合有外源基因并能表达的稳定遗传的小鼠。转基因技术则是指制备转基因动物所需的一套技术,它涉及外源基因的构建、载体和受体的筛选、基因导人技术、供转基因胚胎发育的体外培养系统和宿主动物等许多方面。   1974年,Jaenish和Mintz应用显微注射法,在世界上首次成功地获得了SV40 DNA转基因小鼠。1980年,Gordon等人首先育成带有人胸腺激酶基因的转基因小鼠,尤其是1982年Palmiter等人将大鼠的生长

"Validation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Experimental Models for TGF-β Promoting Tumor Progression"复制标题

“TGF-β 促进肿瘤进展的肝细胞癌实验模型的验证”

发表时间:2019-10-09

影响因子:6.2

作者: Serena Mancarella

期刊:Cancers (Basel)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine with dual role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It acts as tumor-suppressor and tumor-promoter in the early and late stage respectively. TGF-β influences the tumor-stroma cross-talk affecting the tumoral microenvironment. Therefore, inhibiting the TGF- β mediated pathway alone and/or in combination with chemotherapeutics represents an important therapeutic option. Experimental models to dissect the role of TGF-β in HCC tumor progression as well as the effectiveness of specific inhibitors are tricky. HCC cell lines respond to TGF-β according to their epithelial phenotype. However, the mesenchymal and more aggressive HCC cell lines in vitro, do not develop tumors when transplanted in vivo, thus hampering the understanding of molecular pathways that dictate outcome. In addition, in this model the native immune system is abolished, therefore the contribution of inflammation in hepatocarcinogenesis is unreliable. Different strategies have been set up to engineer HCC animal models, including genetically modified mice, chemically induced HCC, or hydrodynamic techniques. Patient-derived xenograft is currently probably the most fascinating model, keeping in mind that models cannot mirror all the reality.

译文

转化生长因子β(TGF-β)是一种多效性细胞因子,在肝细胞癌(HCC)中具有双重作用。在早期和晚期分别起抑癌和促癌作用。TGF-β影响肿瘤间质的相互作用,影响肿瘤微环境。因此,单独或联合化疗抑制TGF-β介导的途径是一种重要的治疗选择。 研究TGF-β在肝癌进展中的作用以及特异性抑制剂的有效性的实验模型是一个棘手的问题。肝癌细胞系根据其上皮表型对TGF-β有反应。然而,体外培养的间充质细胞和更具侵袭性的肝癌细胞系在体内移植时不会发生肿瘤,从而妨碍了对决定预后的分子途径的理解。 此外,在该模型中,天然免疫系统被废除,因此炎症在肝癌发生中的作用是不可靠的。已经建立了不同的策略来构建HCC动物模型,包括转基因小鼠、化学诱导的HCC或流体力学技术。病人来源的异种移植可能是目前最吸引人的模型,记住模型不能反映所有的现实。