摘要

Sciatica is a set of symptoms rather than a specific diagnosis, and is caused by a herniated lumbar disc in the vast majority of cases. The most important symptom is lower limb pain radiating below the knee and into the foot and toes. The clinical course of acute sciatica is generally favorable, with most pain and related disability improving within 2-4 weeks with or without treatment. Diagnosis mainly involves history taking and physical examination. Imaging is warranted if there is evidence of an underlying pathology other than disc herniation, such as infection or malignancy, and in patients with severe symptoms that do not improve after 6-8 weeks of conservative treatment. MRI is the preferred imaging modality, as it can visualize soft tissues better than CT and does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation. Conservative treatment is generally the first-line option in patients with sciatica; however, the currently available evidence does not show any intervention--including a broad range of conservative and surgical approaches--to have clearly superior outcomes. Thus, patient preference seems to be an important factor in the clinical management of sciatica.

译文

坐骨神经痛是一系列症状,而不是特定的诊断,在绝大多数情况下是由椎间盘突出引起的。最重要的症状是下肢疼痛,辐射到膝盖以下并进入脚和脚趾。急性坐骨神经痛的临床过程总体上是有利的,大多数疼痛和相关残疾在治疗或不治疗的 2-4 周内得到改善。诊断主要包括病史采集和体格检查。如果有证据表明除了椎间盘突出以外的潜在病理,如感染或恶性肿瘤,则需要进行成像。以及在保守治疗 6-8 周后症状没有改善的严重患者。MRI 是首选的成像方式,因为它可以比 CT 更好地显示软组织,并且不会使患者暴露在电离辐射下。保守治疗通常是坐骨神经痛患者的一线选择; 然而, 目前可用的证据没有显示任何干预措施 -- 包括广泛的保守和手术方法 -- 有明显更好的结果。因此,患者偏好似乎是坐骨神经痛临床管理的一个重要因素。

Sciatica

骨科 周围神经疾病 疾病
概述  :  

坐骨神经痛是以坐骨神经循行和分布区域的持续性或阵发性疼痛、麻木为主要临床表现的周围神经疾病。由于发病原因及受压部位不同,可分为根性坐骨神经痛和干性坐骨神经痛2种。病因及病理机制坐骨神经是全身最大的外周神经,由腰骶干、S1-3神经组成,起始于腰骶部的脊髓,途经骨盆,并从坐骨大孔穿出,经梨状肌下孔出骨盆到臀部,在臀大肌深面向下行,循行至腘窝以前,分为胫神经和腓总神经,支配小腿及足的全部肌肉以及除隐神经支配区以外的小腿与足的皮肤感觉。坐骨神经痛的发病机制与神经根及其感觉神经节的受压有关,也与局部炎

Sciatica 英 /saɪ'ætɪkə/  美 /saɪ'ætɪkə/       

释义   n. [内科] 坐骨神经痛

例句   Sciatica is pain, weakness, numbness or tingling that can begin in the lower back and run down even to the toes. 坐骨神经痛是疼痛,乏力,麻木或刺痛,可以开始在腰部和运行下来甚至到了脚趾。

请扫描右侧二维码,免费查看词汇专业知识背景