Shoulder 英 /'ʃəʊldə/ 美 /'ʃoldɚ/
释义 n. 肩，肩膀；肩部
复数 shoulders过去式 shouldered过去分词 shouldered现在分词 shouldering第三人称单数 shoulders
例句 Because the shoulder against people used to be me.
作者： Cho C H
期刊：J Shoulder Elbow Surg
Frozen shoulder (FS) is a common shoulder disease characterized by pain and gradual loss of active and passive glenohumeral joint motion. FS is typically categorized into primary and secondary. Primary FS usually develops spontaneously without a definite cause, whereas secondary FS is related to trauma or immobilization. FS has been considered a sequential pathologic process from synovial inflammation to capsular fibrosis, with four clinical stages defined by Hannafin and Chiaia. According to arthroscopic studies, synovial hyperplasia with increased vascularity is predominant during an early period of FS. Inflammation of the synovium evokes serious shoulder pain. This inflammatory stage is followed by capsular fibrosis. Human pathologic studies have demonstrated fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferation in the shoulder capsule, which might be related to stiffened shoulder. However, this subsequent pathologic process remains poorly understood.