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Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: clinical features and pathogenic mechanisms.
弥漫性特发性骨骼骨质增生: 临床特征和致病机制。

摘要

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic condition characterized by the ossification and calcification of ligaments and entheses. DISH is observed on all continents and in all races, but most commonly in men over 50 years of age. Although DISH is asymptomatic in most individuals, the condition is often an indicator of underlying metabolic disease, and the presence of spinal or extraspinal ossifications can sometimes lead to symptoms including pain, stiffness, a reduced range of articular motion, and dysphagia, as well as increasing the risk of unstable spinal fractures. The aetiology of DISH is poorly understood, and the roles of the many factors that might be involved in the development of excess bone are not well delineated. The study of pathophysiological aspects of DISH is made difficult by the formal diagnosis requiring the presence of multiple contiguous fully formed bridging ossifications, which probably represent advanced stages of DISH. In this Review, the reader is provided with an up-to-date discussion of the epidemiological, aetiological and clinical aspects of DISH. Existing classification criteria (which, in the absence of diagnostic criteria, are used to establish a diagnosis of DISH) are also considered, together with the need for modified criteria that enable timely identification of early phases in the development of DISH.

译文

弥漫性特发性骨骼骨质增生 (DISH) 是一种全身性疾病,其特征是韧带和附着物的骨化和钙化。在所有大陆和所有种族都可以看到这道菜,但最常见的是 50 岁以上的男性。尽管 DISH 在大多数个体中是无症状的,这种情况通常是潜在代谢疾病的一个指标,并且脊柱或椎管外骨化的存在有时会导致包括疼痛、僵硬、关节运动范围的减少,吞咽困难,以及增加不稳定脊柱骨折的风险。对 DISH 的病因学知之甚少,许多可能与多余骨骼的发育有关的因素的作用也没有很好的描述。正式诊断要求存在多个连续的完全形成的桥接骨化,这可能代表了 DISH 的晚期,因此对 DISH 的病理生理学方面的研究变得困难。在这篇综述中,向读者提供了关于 DISH 的流行病学、病原学和临床方面的最新讨论。现有的分类标准 (在没有诊断标准的情况下,用于建立 DISH 的诊断) 也被考虑在内, 以及对能够及时识别 DISH 开发的早期阶段的修改标准的需求。

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

骨科 脊柱退行性疾病 疾病
概述  :  

临床上,弥漫性特发性骨肥厚症并不少见,常因为缺乏对本病的认识忽视了进一步全面检查,而将这种疾病的某些局部影像表现简单地列为颈椎和胸腰椎退变性疾病,并加以诊断和治疗。目前,通常认为DISH是涉及并影响韧带的椎体退行性改变而被纳入特殊表现的脊柱退行性疾病。本病主要病理变化为脊柱连续数个椎体前、外侧钙化和骨化,伴有或不伴神经压迫症,并可表现有外周骨、肌腱和韧带附着处发生骨化。   主要病理变化 迄今,DISH的病因尚不清楚,许多学者认为可

diffuse 英 [dɪˈfjuːs]  美 [dɪˈfjuːs]

释    义   adj. 弥漫的;散开的

vt. 扩散;传播;漫射

vi. 传播;四散

同根词   diffuse

adj. diffused 散布的,扩散的;普及的

diffusive 普及的;散布性的;冗长的

adv. diffusely 广泛地;扩散地

n. diffusion 扩散,传播;[光] 漫射

diffuseness 扩散;漫无边际

v. diffused 散布,传播(diffuse的过去分词);使分散

例    句   The chemicals diffuse quickly across the minute gap between the neurons and dock with receptors on the surface of the receiving neuron. 这些化学物质通过神经元之间的小间隙迅速扩散,与接收神经元表面的受体接触。

 

idiopathic 英 [,ɪdɪə(ʊ)'pæθɪk]  美 [,ɪdɪə'pæθɪk]

释    义   adj. 先天的;自发的,特发的

同根词   idiopathy

n. idiopathy [医] 自发病;[医] 特发病

例    句   Thrombocytosis occurs only rarely and is often idiopathic. 血小板增多症十分罕见,而且往往是自发性的。

 

skeletal 英 [ˈskelətl]  美 [ˈskelətl]

释    义   adj. 骨骼的,像骨骼的;骸骨的;骨瘦如柴的

同根词   skeleton

adj. skeleton 骨骼的;骨瘦如柴的;概略的

n. skeleton 骨架,骨骼;纲要;骨瘦如柴的人

例    句   They share many skeletal features, such as hollow bones, as well as feathers and nest-building behaviors. 他们有许多相同的骨骼特征,例如中空的骨头,也都有羽毛和筑巢行为。

 

hyperostosis 英 [,haɪpərɒs'təʊsɪs]  美 [,haɪpərɑ'stosɪs]

释    义   n. 骨肥大;骨肥厚

短    语   osseous hyperostosis 骨质增生 hyperostosis cranii 颅骨增生 hyperostosis syndrome 骨肥大综合征

例    句   Objective: To explore the effect methods of external treatment for hyperostosis by Chinese herbal medicament. 目的:探讨中药外治骨质增生的有效方法。

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