rheumatoid 英 /'ruːmətɒɪd/ 美 /'rʊmətɔɪd/
释 义 n. [医] 类风湿病的
同根词 adj.rheumatic 风湿病的；风湿病引起的
rheumatism [内科] 风湿病
例 句 A rheumatoid nodule is a local swelling or tissue lump, usually rather firm to touch, like an unripe fruit, which occurs almost exclusively in association with rheumatoid arthritis.
作者： Bang S
A rheumatoid nodule is the most common extra-articular manifestation and characteristic lesion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. This is mainly manifested as a cutaneous mass; however, it can arise in various non-cutaneous sites such as the lung, tendon, vocal cord, occiput, and sacrum. The diagnosis of rheumatoid nodules is usually determined clinically with typical clinical characteristics without requiring additional diagnostic testing. However, if there is uncertainty in the diagnosis, distinct histologic features of rheumatoid nodules should be confirmed by excisional biopsy. Rheumatoid nodules in the lung, which is a commonly affected site of noncutaneous rheumatoid nodules, can mimic infections such as tuberculosis, or neoplastic diseases.Necrobiosis, with fibrin deposition and palisading epithelioid histiocytes, is a typical histologic feature of rheumatoid nodules. The area of central necrosis contains necrotizing endothelial cells and histiocytes. The outer area tends to show granulation tissues with chronic inflammatory cells and significant stromal fibrosis. Focal vasculitis and occasional giant cells can also be found. Overall, the histologic appearance of rheumatoid nodules is representative of an immunemediated granulomatous process. These surrounding palisading epithelioid histiocytes are antigen-presenting cells testing positive for human leucocyte antigen–DR isotype (HLA-DR) and were found to secrete interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, and IL-12 in other studies.