intramuscular 英 /ˌɪntrəˈmʌskjələ(r)/ 美 /ˌɪntrəˈmʌskjələr/
释义 adj. 肌肉的；肌肉内的
例句 Is the move factor that inject uses intramuscular injection or hypodermic? 注射用的转移因子是肌肉注射还是皮下注射？
injection 英 /ɪnˈdʒekʃn/ 美 /ɪnˈdʒekʃn/
释义 n. 注射；注射剂；充血；射入轨道
例句 Can you tell me this drug should be administered by intravenous injection or dripping? 你可以告诉我这个药是经由静脉注射还是静脉滴注吗？
作者： Holmes RJ
Hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) is a common complication following stroke ranging in incidence between 23% and 40% at 6 months, with a peak onset of 4 months. It is associated with an increased length of stay during inpatient rehabilitation and is an important predictor of poor functional outcome in the upper limb. It has been shown to be significantly associated with reduced quality of life at 12 months post-stroke, as well as impacting on a patient’s mood, activities of daily living, and participation in leisure activities to a great extent. HSP is thought to be multifactorial in causation, encompassing both neurological (of central or peripheral nature) and mechanical (traumatic and insidious) factors. Consequently, the range of available treatment modalities is vast with one exploratory study identifying 175 different therapeutic interventions under 13 themes. Roosink et al. recommend a multifactorial approach to treatment but to do this there needs to be a clear diagnostic process to identify the different aspects of HSP at play. Unfortunately, it remains unclear in the literature what the optimal treatment modalities for the various subtypes of HSP are and, in practice, linking the causation with the most effective intervention remains problematic.