首页 > 医学词汇大全 > Sympathectomy
Sympathectomy

神经

关键词神经 疾病 交感神经功能紊乱

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

sympathectomy [,sɪmpə'θektəmɪ]   [,sɪmpə'θɛktəmi] 

       n. 交感神经切除术

       Objective : To investigate the change of enzyme and twitch muscle fiber in spasmodic muscle after sympathectomy. 目的:探讨交感神经切断后,痉挛肌肉内酶与肌纤维结构的改变。

概述

 交感神经切断术是指通过外科手术的方法切断或切除一定部位的交感神经,治疗某些疾病。 手术指征 创伤后肢体痛:交感神经创伤后肢体痛中的灼痛。幻肢痛等传入神经阻滞痛不适于此于术。一般创伤后肢体灼痛能够自行缦解。如果长期不缓解,方考虑手术沿疗。血管性病变:交感神经切除术对肢体血管痉挛性疾病效果较好。由于冷或者情感变化影响而导致的痉挛适于做交感神经切除术。由于血栓、脉管炎、胶原病引起的血管闭塞也适于手术。近年来对肢体近端大血管闭塞进行直接手术,如搭桥术和血管内膜剥脱术,

Severe Hypoglycemia Induced Fatal Cardiac Arrhythmias are Mediated By the Parasympathetic Nervous System In Rats复制标题

严重低血糖诱导的致死性心律失常是由大鼠副交感神经系统介导的。

发表时间:2019-08-22

影响因子:7.2

作者: Candace M Reno

期刊:Diabetes

The contribution of the sympathetic (SNS) versus parasympathetic (PSNS) nervous system in mediating fatal cardiac arrhythmias during insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia is not well understood. Therefore, experimental protocols were performed in non-diabetic, Sprague Dawley rats to test SNS with 1) adrenal demedullation and 2) chemical sympathectomy, and to test PSNS with 3) surgical vagotomy, 4) nicotinic receptor (mecamylamine) and muscarinic receptor (AQ-RA 741) blockade, and 5) heart perfusions with normal or low glucose, acetylcholine and/or mecamylamine. In protocols 1-4, 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (0.2U·kg·min)-hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dl) clamps were performed. Adrenal demedullation and chemical sympathectomy had no effect on mortality or arrhythmias during severe hypoglycemia compared to controls. Vagotomy led to a 6.9-fold decrease in mortality, reduced 1 and 2 degree heart block 4.6- and 4-fold, respectively, and prevented 3 degree heart block compared to controls. Pharmacological blockade of nicotinic receptors, but not muscarinic receptors, prevented heart block and mortality versus controls. heart perfusions demonstrated that neither low glucose nor acetylcholine alone caused arrhythmias, but their combination induced heart block that could be abrogated by nicotinic receptor blockade. Taken together, acetylcholine activation of nicotinic receptors via the vagus nerve is the primary mediator of severe hypoglycemia-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmias.

译文

在胰岛素诱导的严重低血糖期间,交感神经(SNS)与副交感神经(PSNS)神经系统在介导致命性心律失常中的作用尚不清楚。因此,在非糖尿病,Sprague Dawley大鼠中进行实验方案以测试SNS,1)肾上腺脱髓鞘和2)化学交感神经切除术,并用3)手术迷走神经切断术,4)烟碱受体(美卡拉明)和毒蕈碱受体(AQ)测试PSNS。 -RA 741)阻断,和5)用普通或低葡萄糖,乙酰胆碱和/或美卡拉明进行心脏灌注。在方案1-4中,进行3小时高胰岛素血症(0.2U·kg·min) - 低血糖(10-15mg / dl)钳夹。与对照组相比,肾上腺脱髓鞘和化学交感神经切除术对严重低血糖期间的死亡率或心律失常没有影响。与对照组相比,Vagotomy导致死亡率降低6.9倍,心脏阻滞1和2度分别降低4.6倍和4倍,并防止3度心脏传导阻滞。与对照组相比,对烟碱受体而非毒蕈碱受体的药理学阻断可预防心脏传导阻滞和死亡。心脏灌注证明,单独的低葡萄糖和乙酰胆碱都不会引起心律失常,但它们的组合会诱发心脏阻滞,这可能会被烟碱受体阻断所消除。总之,通过迷走神经的乙酰胆碱激活烟碱受体是严重低血糖诱导的致命性心律失常的主要介质。