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AN INTERPRETATION OF THE AGGLUTINATION REACTION TO BACILLUS ABORTUS IN 75 CASES OF BOVINE ABORTION BACTERIOLOGICALLY CONTROLLED.
75 例牛流产细菌对照中流产芽孢杆菌凝集反应的解释。

摘要

The agglutination test when carried out so as to give the entire range of serum dilutions to the limit of clumping is a delicate test which reflects a variety of conditions involved in infection with Bacillus abortus. Among these conditions are its time relation to the act of abortion and the length of time the abortion bacilli live and multiply in the pregnant uterus. It is obvious that if a uterus be infected in the 8th month of pregnancy, the opportunity for agglutinins to accumulate are poorer than if the uterine infection lasts 3 or 4 months. The presence of Bacillus abortus in the udder determines in many cases the intensity of the reaction. No definite rules can therefore be formulated for the interpretation of the agglutination reaction quantitatively, since it is bound up with a complicated process varying from case to case. In the individual cow in general a titer of 1:40 or less may be regarded as indicating that the cow is not infected with Bacillus abortus at the time of the blood examination. It does not exclude former infections in the case of older cows, nor does it absolutely exclude very recent infection (Nos. 278 and 351). The highest titers, 1:640 and above, generally indicate recent infection and in the absence of recent premature births infection of the udder. Even when abortion has just occurred, it may be due to other agencies and the high titer maintained by a chronic infection of the udder dating from an earlier uterine infection with Bacillus abortus. Intermediate titers may indicate a gradual rise or decline of agglutinins preceding or following abortion without infection of the udder. They may also stand for a relatively high resistance or partial immunity of the cow. In any herd a uniformly low titer (1:40 or less) in all animals may be regarded as indicating the entire absence of Bacillus abortus. A high titer in any one cow serves to indicate quite definitely the presence of infection in the herd. To determine more accurately the character of the infection in any individual cow there is needed in addition to the quantitative agglutination test a bacteriological study of the milk and of any prematurely discharged calf or fetus.

译文

进行凝集试验以使整个血清稀释范围达到聚集的限度,这是一项微妙的试验,反映了流产杆菌感染的各种情况。这些情况包括它与流产行为的时间关系以及流产杆菌在怀孕子宫中存活和繁殖的时间长度。很明显,如果子宫在怀孕 8 个月时被感染,凝集素积累的机会比子宫感染持续 3 或 4 个月时要差。在许多情况下,乳房中流产杆菌的存在决定了反应的强度。因此,对于凝集反应的定量解释,没有明确的规则可以制定出来,因为它与不同情况下的复杂过程息息相关。一般来说,在个别奶牛中,滴度为 1:40 或更低可被视为表明奶牛在血液检查时没有感染流产杆菌。它不排除年长奶牛的前感染,也不绝对排除最近的感染278 和 351)。最高滴度为 1: 640 及以上,通常表明最近感染,并且没有最近早产的乳房感染。即使流产刚刚发生,也可能是由于其他原因造成的,并且乳房的慢性感染保持了高滴度,这种感染可以追溯到早期流产杆菌的子宫感染。中间滴度可能表明在没有乳房感染的情况下堕胎之前或之后凝集素的逐渐上升或下降。它们也可能代表奶牛相对较高的抵抗力或部分免疫力。在任何动物群中,所有动物的均匀低滴度 (1:40 或更低) 可被视为表明流产杆菌完全不存在。任何一头奶牛的高滴度都可以非常肯定地表明牛群中存在感染。为了更准确地确定任何一头奶牛的感染特征,除了定量凝集试验之外,还需要对牛奶和任何早产的小牛或胎儿进行细菌学研究。

agglutination reaction

免疫 凝集反应 诊断方式
概述  :  

在合适的电解质存在下,细菌和红细胞等颗粒性抗原与相应抗体结合后,产生肉眼可见的特异性凝集现象称为凝集反应。凝集反应的发生可分为二个阶段:第一阶段抗原抗体的特异结合,第二阶段出现可见的颗粒凝集。 根据反应中抗原的性质和反应方式又可分为直接凝集反应、间接凝集反应和共同凝集反应或协同凝集反应。 凝集试验的灵敏度高、方法简便,已广泛应用于临床血清学诊断、生化物质和病毒抗体的检测。   分类 (1)直接凝集反应

Agglutination  英[ə,ɡluːtɪ'neɪʃən] 美 [ə,glʊtən'eʃən]

释    义    n. 凝集;胶合

例    句     Semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube Widal tests performed poorly.

半定量玻片凝集试验和单管维达尔试验效果不佳。

 

Reaction 英 [riˈækʃn] 美 [riˈækʃn]

释    义    n. 反应,感应;反动,复古;反作用

例    句     In the reaction, the fraction acts as an agent.

在反应中,这些碎片起一种媒剂的作用。

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