摘要

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, accounting for 20.6% of infant deaths in 2017 (1). Rates of infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) have generally declined since the 1970s (1-3). U.S. linked birth/infant death data from 2003-2017 were used to assess trends in IMBD. Overall, rates declined 10% during 2003-2017, but decreases varied by maternal and infant characteristics. During 2003-2017, IMBD rates decreased 4% for infants of Hispanic mothers, 11% for infants of non-Hispanic black (black) mothers, and 12% for infants of non-Hispanic white (white) mothers. In 2017, these rates were highest among infants of black mothers (13.3 per 10,000 live births) and were lowest among infants of white mothers (9.9). During 2003-2017, IMBD rates for infants who were born extremely preterm (20-27 completed gestational weeks), full term (39-40 weeks), and late term/postterm (41-44 weeks) declined 20%-29%; rates for moderate (32-33 weeks) and late preterm (34-36 weeks) infants increased 17%. Continued tracking of IMBD rates can help identify areas where efforts to reduce IMBD are needed, such as among infants born to black and Hispanic mothers and those born moderate and late preterm (32-36 weeks).

译文

出生缺陷是导致婴儿死亡的美国,占 20.6% 的婴儿死亡 2017年 (月)。婴儿死亡率和出生缺陷 (互联网电影数据网) 以来普遍下降 20世纪70年代 (月-月)。美国与出生/婴幼儿死亡数据从 2003-2017,评定互联网电影数据网趋势。总体而言,利率下降 10% 时 2003-2017,减少因产妇和婴儿的特点。在 2003-2017,互联网电影数据网率降低 4% 的西班牙裔母亲的婴儿,11% 对婴幼儿的非裔黑人 (黑色) 的母亲,和 12% 的婴幼儿的非西班牙裔白人 (白色) 母亲。2017,这些比率最高的婴儿的母亲 (13.3 每 10,000 名活产婴儿) 和婴儿白色妈妈中最低 (9.9)。在 2003-2017,互联网电影数据网率极早产的婴儿出生 (月-27 完成孕周),任期 (39-40 周), 而后期长期/过期 (41-44 周) 下降 20%-29%,比率为中度 (32-33 周) 和晚期早产儿 (月号-36 周) 婴幼儿增加 17%。继续追踪互联网电影数据网率可以帮助确定哪些方面的努力减少互联网电影数据网是必要的, 如婴儿出生的黑人和拉美裔母亲出生中晚早产 (32-36 周)。

Birth defects

妇产 新生儿 疾病
概述  :  

出生缺陷指婴儿出生前发生的身体结构、功能或代谢异常。出生缺陷可由染色体异常、基因突变等遗传因素或环境因素引起,也可由这两种因素交互作用或其他不明原因所致。出生缺陷可以非常轻微,以至于出生时难以发现,也可以非常严重,甚至危及生命。通常表现为先天性结构异常、发育异常或功能异常。出生缺陷是导致早期流产、死胎、围产儿死亡、婴幼儿死亡和先天残疾的主要原因。 预防分级 一般情况下,出生缺陷的防治可分三级:一级预防是孕前干预,防止出生缺陷胎

birth  英 [bɜːθ]   美 [bɜːrθ] 

释    义     n. 出生;血统,出身;起源  [复数 births ]

例    句    How can there be life after birth? 出生之后怎么还能有生命?

 

defects   英 [dɪ'fekts]   美 [dɪ'fɛkts] 

释    义    n. 缺点;瑕疵;不合格品(defect的复数) 

   v. 叛变(defect的三单形式)

例    句    A hearing aid helps to overcome defects in hearing. 助听器有助于克服听觉缺陷。

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