dysmenorrhea incidence menstrual pain natural history painful menstruation prevalence risk factors
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摘要

Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual complaint with a major impact on women's quality of life, work productivity, and health-care utilization. A comprehensive review was performed on longitudinal or case-control or cross-sectional studies with large community-based samples to accurately determine the prevalence and/or incidence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Fifteen primary studies, published between 2002 and 2011, met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea varies between 16% and 91% in women of reproductive age, with severe pain in 2%-29% of the women studied. Women's age, parity, and use of oral contraceptives were inversely associated with dysmenorrhea, and high stress increased the risk of dysmenorrhea. The effect sizes were generally modest to moderate, with odds ratios varying between 1 and 4. Family history of dysmenorrhea strongly increased its risk, with odds ratios between 3.8 and 20.7. Inconclusive evidence was found for modifiable factors such as cigarette smoking, diet, obesity, depression, and abuse. Dysmenorrhea is a significant symptom for a large proportion of women of reproductive age; however, severe pain limiting daily activities is less common. This review confirms that dysmenorrhea improves with increased age, parity, and use of oral contraceptives and is positively associated with stress and family history of dysmenorrhea. 

译文

痛经是一种常见的月经主诉,对女性的生活质量、工作效率和医疗保健利用有重大影响。对具有大型社区样本的纵向或病例对照或横断面研究进行全面综述,以准确确定痛经的患病率和/或发病率以及危险因素。2002年和 2011 发表的 15 项主要研究符合纳入标准。在生育年龄的女性中,痛经的患病率在 16% 到 91% 之间,在 2% 到 29% 的被研究的女性中,会有剧烈的疼痛。女性的年龄、产次和口服避孕药的使用与痛经呈负相关,高压力会增加痛经的风险。效果大小通常是适度的,比值比在 1 到 4 之间变化。痛经家族史极大地增加了其风险,比值比在 3.8 到 20.7 之间。对于诸如吸烟、饮食、肥胖、抑郁和滥用等可改变的因素,发现了不确定的证据。对于大部分生育年龄的女性来说,痛经是一个显著的症状; 然而,限制日常活动的剧烈疼痛并不常见。这篇综述证实,痛经随着年龄、产次和口服避孕药的使用而改善,并与压力和痛经家族史呈正相关。

Dysmenorrhea

妇产 内分泌生殖疾病 疾病
概述  :  

痛经(dysmenorrhea)为最常见的妇科症状之一,指行经前后或月经期出现下腹部疼痛、坠胀,伴有腰酸或其他不适症状严重者影响生活和工作。痛经分为原发性和继发性两类,原发性痛经指生殖器无器质性病变的痛经,占痛经90% 以上;继发性痛经指由盆腔器质性疾病引起的痛经。 病因原发性痛经的发生主要与月经来潮时子宫内膜前列腺素( prostaglandin , PG )含量增高有关。研究表明,痛经患者子宫内膜和月经血中 PGF2α 和PGE2含量均较正常妇女明显升高,PGF2α升高是造成痛

dysmenorrhea   英 [,dɪsmenə'rɪə] 美 [,dɪsmɛnə'riə] 

释    义   n. [妇产] 痛经;月经困难

词    根    dyslexic   

同根词   adj. dyslexic 诵读困难的   n. dyslexic 诵读困难者

例    句   As for how to deal with dysmenorrhea ?  该如何应对痛经呢?

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