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Obesity

内分泌

关键词内分泌 疾病 代谢

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Obesity   英 /əʊˈbiːsəti/   美 /o'bisəti/

释    义   n.肥胖

例    句   And obesity is a huge problem in the United States, especially in the African american community and other minority communities. 在美国,肥胖症是一个严重的问题,尤其在非裔美国人和其它少数民族群体中。

概述

肥胖是一种医学病症,其中过量的身体脂肪可能对健康有不利影响。当人们的体重指数(BMI)超过30kg/ m2,通常被认为是肥胖。肥胖会增加各种疾病和状况的可能性,尤其是心血管疾病,2型糖尿病,阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停,某些类型的癌症,骨关节炎和抑郁症等。病理原因(1)睡眠不足;(2)内分泌干扰物(干扰脂质代谢的环境污染物);(3)周围温度变化的幅度降低;(4)吸烟减少,因为吸烟抑制食欲;(5)使用可能会导致体重增加的药物(例如,药物的增加的非典型抗精神病药物);(6)种族和年龄组的比例的增加趋向于更

Decreased adipocyte glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and aquaglyceroporin-7 (AQP7) in adults with morbid obesity:possible early markers of metabolic dysfunction复制标题

病态肥胖成人脂肪细胞葡萄糖转运蛋白4 (GLUT4) 和aquaglyceroporin-7 (AQP7) 降低: 代谢功能障碍的可能早期标志物

发表时间:2019-10-07

影响因子:1.6

作者: Roza Mourelatou

期刊:Hormones

Obesity, whose rising trend is alarming, has reached global proportions. Morbid obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) is associated with a large number of metabolic comorbidities, including insulin resistance (IR), hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiovascular disease. Excess energy intake results in adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration, which can lead to chronic systemic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation. Hypertrophy of the mature adipocytes with fat accumulation and enlargement of the lipid droplets is considered to be the result of a disrupted balance between lipolysis and lipogenesis. These abnormalities, along with reduced adipocyte differentiation and aberrant adipokine secretion, such as reduced adiponectin, cause pathological adipose tissue expansion. During lipogenesis, the insulin signaling pathway is activated, resulting in activation of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which phosphorylates the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidyl-inosytol-3 kinase (PI3-kinase), causing the activation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K and the activation of serine/threonine protein kinase PKBβ/AktΙΙ, with the assistance of a small GTPase, Rab5. The final result is the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the cellular membrane for glucose uptake. Once glucose enters the adipocyte, it is converted into glycerol-3-phosphate and is incorporated, together with fatty acids (FA), into the lipid droplet to produce triglycerides (TGs). It has been reported that disruption of key components of the insulin intracellular signaling pathway and GLUT4 is associated with adipose tissue IR and decreased glucose uptake which may disrupt whole-body insulin sensitivity. It seems that decreased GLUT4 expression occurs prior to the development of hyperglycemia and that GLUT4 can be used as an early marker of DM2.

译文

肥胖症的上升趋势令人震惊,已达到全球范围。病态肥胖(BMI> 40 kg / m2)与大量代谢合并症相关,包括胰岛素抵抗(IR),高脂血症,2型糖尿病(DM2)和心血管疾病。过多的能量摄入会导致脂肪细胞肥大和巨噬细胞浸润,从而导致慢性全身性炎症和异位脂肪堆积。具有脂肪积累和脂质小滴增大的成熟脂肪细胞的肥大被认为是脂解和脂肪形成之间平衡失衡的结果。这些异常以及减少的脂肪细胞分化和异常的脂肪因子分泌,例如减少的脂联素,导致病理性脂肪组织扩张。在脂肪形成过程中,胰岛素信号传导途径被激活,导致胰岛素受体底物1(IRS1)激活,后者使磷脂酰肌醇3激酶(PI3-激酶)的p85调节亚基磷酸化,从而引起p110催化亚基的激活。在小GTP酶Rab5的辅助下,PI3K的表达和丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白激酶PKBβ/ AktIII的活化。最终的结果是葡萄糖转运蛋白4(GLUT4),以葡萄糖的摄入细胞膜易位。葡萄糖一旦进入脂肪细胞,就会转化为3-磷酸甘油,并与脂肪酸(FA)一起掺入脂质液滴中,从而生成甘油三酸酯(TGs)。据报道,胰岛素细胞内信号转导通路和GLUT4关键成分的破坏与脂肪组织IR和葡萄糖摄取降低有关,这可能会破坏全身胰岛素敏感性。似乎在高血糖发展之前发生了GLUT4表达的降低,并且GLUT4可以用作DM2的早期标记。