Obesity 英 /əʊˈbiːsəti/ 美 /o'bisəti/
释 义 n.肥胖
例 句 And obesity is a huge problem in the United States, especially in the African american community and other minority communities. 在美国，肥胖症是一个严重的问题，尤其在非裔美国人和其它少数民族群体中。
病态肥胖成人脂肪细胞葡萄糖转运蛋白4 (GLUT4) 和aquaglyceroporin-7 (AQP7) 降低: 代谢功能障碍的可能早期标志物
作者： Roza Mourelatou
Obesity, whose rising trend is alarming, has reached global proportions. Morbid obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) is associated with a large number of metabolic comorbidities, including insulin resistance (IR), hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiovascular disease. Excess energy intake results in adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration, which can lead to chronic systemic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation. Hypertrophy of the mature adipocytes with fat accumulation and enlargement of the lipid droplets is considered to be the result of a disrupted balance between lipolysis and lipogenesis. These abnormalities, along with reduced adipocyte differentiation and aberrant adipokine secretion, such as reduced adiponectin, cause pathological adipose tissue expansion. During lipogenesis, the insulin signaling pathway is activated, resulting in activation of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which phosphorylates the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidyl-inosytol-3 kinase (PI3-kinase), causing the activation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K and the activation of serine/threonine protein kinase PKBβ/AktΙΙ, with the assistance of a small GTPase, Rab5. The final result is the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the cellular membrane for glucose uptake. Once glucose enters the adipocyte, it is converted into glycerol-3-phosphate and is incorporated, together with fatty acids (FA), into the lipid droplet to produce triglycerides (TGs). It has been reported that disruption of key components of the insulin intracellular signaling pathway and GLUT4 is associated with adipose tissue IR and decreased glucose uptake which may disrupt whole-body insulin sensitivity. It seems that decreased GLUT4 expression occurs prior to the development of hyperglycemia and that GLUT4 can be used as an early marker of DM2.