Pituitary 英 /pɪˈtjuːɪtəri/ 美 /pɪˈtuːəteri/
释 义 n. （脑）垂体
例 句 Your pituitary gland pumps this stuff out a part of the stress response. 你的脑垂体释放这种物质作为对压力反应的一部分。
Tumor 英 /'tju:mə(r)/ 美 /'tjʊmɚ/
释 义 n. 肿瘤；肿块；赘生物
例 句 So antiangiogenesis will be an efficient method in the inhibition of the growth and metastasis of tumor. 所以抗血管生成将是一种很有希望的对抑制肿瘤生长和转移的有效方法。
作者： Yasuhiko Nariai
This case indicates the prospective possibility of using flow-diverting stents for the treatment of pseudoaneurysms, especially for those caused following TSS. Flow-diverting stents can enable us to treat the pseudoaneurysms with preservation of the parent artery in a less invasive manner. In TSS, life-threatening complications such as hemorrhage from ICA injuries can arise. The cavernous segments of the ICA are at risk during surgical exploration of the pituitary gland such as when removing the sellar floor, opening the sellar dura, and resecting tumors. The reported incidence of ICA injuries during TSS for pituitary tumors ranges between 0.55 and 1.1%. ICA pseudoaneurysms resulting from iatrogenic injuries during TSS are similar to blood blister-type aneurysms histologically (indicating focal artery laceration), and geographically (occurring at non-branching sites of the ICA), with the possibility for rapid enlargement and rupture with a 30–50% reported mortality rate. Although shrinkage and spontaneous resolution of intracranial pseudoaneurysms have been reported, clinical series have reported rupture rates of up to 60% prior to definitive treatment. In a review by Alzhrani et al., the time of diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms after TSS injuries ranges from 2 days to 10 years postoperatively. Patients with ICA pseudoaneurysms present with cranial neuropathy, carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), pituitary apoplexy, or epistaxis. Prompt angiography after initial management of acute bleeding with nasal packing allows assessment of whether there is ongoing hemorrhage and can be used to identify the presence of pseudoaneurysms or CCF. Among Michael et al.’s cohort, 23% of patients with cavernous carotid pseudoaneurysm after TSS did not show evidence of vascular injury or hemorrhage during the operation, implying likely subtle carotid injuries that were unrecognized during the surgery. Patients with a history of TSS should be immediately inspected for iatrogenic vascular abnormalities once they present with epistaxis, visual impairment, external ophthalmoplegia, or bruit, even if there is no evidence of injury in the ICA.