释 义 n. (Kallmann)人名；(英、德)卡尔曼
例 句 Kit Moresby: Kallmann, we're not tourists. We're travelers. 凯特莫斯比：卡曼，我们不是游客，我们是旅行者。
Syndrome 英 /ˈsɪndrəʊm/ 美 /ˈsɪndroʊm/
释 义 n. [临床] 综合症状；并发症状；校验子；并发位
例 句 And Cotard's syndrome is you believe that you're dead; you believe that you're dead; you are persuaded that you're dead. 科塔尔综合症是你认为自己已经死了,你很确定自己已经死了
作者： Hyun-Ju Cho
期刊：Front Cell Dev Biol
Unraveling how specialized neurons arise from heterogenous cell populations and then migrate to their appropriate location has important implications for understanding the development and progression of neuronal disorders. Proper establishment of the Gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH) system is crucial for function of the reproduction system in vertebrates. GnRH neurons originate within the nasal placode, a region that also gives rise to olfactory sensory neurons (both those that sense odors as well as those that sense pheromones) and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs). As the nasal placode invaginates to form the main olfactory epithelium (OE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), GnRH neurons migrate out of the VNO to the brain along axons that are covered by OECs. Once within the forebrain, GnRH neurons function in hormone signaling through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In humans, improper development of the nasal placode and/or migration of GnRH neurons results in various forms of hypogonadism, including Kallmann Syndrome (KS) which is characterized by anosmia and lack of sexual development. Ongoing studies continue to support the occurrence of oligogenism in KS patients, indicating that a combination of mutations or rare variants on two or more genes can underlie the disease (di/oligogenic disorder). As such, one needs to understand the cellular components that GnRH neurons are exposed to, how they interact, which are redundant and who may compensate. In addition, the question remains as to the diversity of GnRH cells themselves -Do subpopulations exist (expressing different receptors perhaps), responding to different cues, to ensure some GnRH cells reach the brain and the animal can reproduce? Since the development of the GnRH system is intimately entwined with the development of the olfactory system, factors that regulate development of the nasal placode and thus GnRH cells are discussed in Section “Development of the Olfactory Placode and GnRH Neurons”. Section “Migration of GnRH Neurons From the Nose to the Brain” focuses on factors that influence outgrowth of olfactory axons and migration of the GnRH neurons. Then, in the last section, we discuss mutations in humans with KS that result from disruption of normal development of the GnRH/olfactory systems and present new candidate genes that might contribute to KS based on bioinformatic analysis of known KS genes.