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Thyroid stimulating hormone

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语 甲状腺疾病

词汇介绍

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解析

thyroid   英 /'θaɪrɒɪd/   美 /'θaɪrɔɪd/

       n. 甲状腺;甲状软骨;甲状腺剂

               adj. 甲状腺的;盾状的

       Located near the base of the neck, the thyroid is a large endocrine gland that produces hormones that help control growth and metabolism. 甲状腺位于颈部的底部附近,是一个很大的内分泌腺体,它产生激素,协助控制生长和新陈代谢。

 

stimulating   英 /'stɪmjʊleɪtɪŋ/   美 /'stɪmjuletɪŋ/

       adj. 刺激的;有刺激性的

               v. 刺激;激励;促进(stimulate的ing形式)

       This hints that the vagus nerve is involved because it is responsible for stimulating the throat and neck muscles. 这暗示着振奋情绪牵扯到交感神经,因为交感神经负责刺激咽喉和脖颈肌肉。

 

hormone   英/'hɔːməʊn/   美 /'hɔrmon/

       n. [生理] 激素,荷尔蒙

       But the hormone has its drawbacks. 但荷尔蒙也有它的缺点。

概述

促甲状腺激素是一种垂体激素,刺激甲状腺产生甲状腺素,然后是三碘甲状腺原氨酸,刺激体内几乎所有组织的新陈代谢。它是由垂体前叶中的甲状腺细胞产生的糖蛋白激素,调节甲状腺的内分泌功能。血液检查TSH血液测试是评估甲状腺症状和/或功能的首选测试。它经常在T4测试之前或与T4测试一起。正常范围2003年,美国临床内分泌学家协会(AACE)发布了一份新闻稿,以更新TSH正常值的变化。从0.5 mI/L到5.0 mI/L的范围,它们将目标TSH水平范围缩小到0.3 mI/L到3.0 mI/L。但是,许多传

Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and thyroid hormone/thyroid antibody levels in maternal and cord blood: The Hokkaido Study复制标题

母亲和脐带血中全氟烷基物质暴露与甲状腺激素/甲状腺抗体水平的相关性: 北海道研究

发表时间:2019-09-10

影响因子:7.9

作者: Sachiko Itoh

期刊:Environ Int

In maternal TH analysis, current study found that significant positive associations between PFASs and FT3 in both TA groups. On the contrary to the postulation, our result did not find that TA-positive mothers were more susceptible than TA-negative mothers. Reardon et al. (2019) suggested the susceptibility for PFAS effect on THs in TA-positive mothers might be different depending on the gestational stage. The timing of blood collection for TH measurements may be an important factor, since circulating TH levels during pregnancy change dramatically during gestational weeks (Webster et al., 2014; between gestational weeks 15–18, Preston et al., 2018; median, 9.6 weeks of gestation, and current study; 11.35 weeks of gestation). Fetal thyroid glands begin to secrete hormones after the second trimester of gestation (de Escobar et al., 2004; Obregon et al., 2007). During early pregnancy, fetuses rely on maternal THs, and the disruption of maternal TH homeostasis can affect both maternal and fetal health. Deficiencies or imbalances in maternal THs likely disrupt the normal neurological development of fetuses; therefore, we investigated the effect of maternal THs on fetuses in their early gestational stages. The current analyses of the associations between maternal PFAS levels and maternal THs were designed as a cross-sectional study. PFASs have long half elimination time as reported in Olsen et al. (2007). Therefore, we believe that PFAS levels at later gestational stage could also reflect the PFAS levels at early gestational stage. Additionally, we included TgAb-positive mothers in TA-positive group, while previous studies measured only TPOAb. We included TgAb-positive women because TgAb status was considered to be important as effect modifier to explore “multiple hit hypothesis”. Unfortunately, we are unable to further speculate the differences as those previous studies did not measure TgAb. Webster et al. (2016) reported the joint effect of high TPOAb and low iodine exposure in the PFAS-TH relationships. Other factors should be considered as one of the effect modifier as well as TA status in the further study. There are some potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption by PFAS; competitive binding to TH binding proteins (Weiss et al., 2009) and the change of hepatic clearance (Yu et al., 2009), leading to decrease of T4 and Possible mechanism of the positive association between PFAS and FT3 have been proposed to be the up-regulation of the deiodinase enzyme which converts T4 to T3 (Yu et al., 2009). In our study, PFHxS associated with higher FT3 with and higher FT4 (p < 0.010), while PFNA associated with higher FT3 and lower FT4 (not significant). The current results suggest the possibility of different mechanism between PFHxS and PFNA, and different susceptibility between TA-positive and negative group. Regarding neonatal TH analysis, Kim et al. (2011) found a negative correlation between maternal PFOS and fetal total T3, and between maternal PFTrDA and total T3 and T4 levels in fetuses; moreover, maternal PFOA positively correlated with fetal TSH among 44 South Korean participants. A Dutch study (n = 83) found that a high level of PFOA in cord blood was associated with increased total T4 levels in heel prick blood among girls (de Cock et al., 2014). Furthermore, we previously reported the positive association between maternal PFOS and boy's heel prick TSH (Kato et al., 2016), which was also seen among all boys in the current study. Current results support the hypothesis that maternal PFAS exposure disrupt neonatal TH levels as shown in previous studies, though our results cannot be compared directly to others because previous studies did not take stratification of maternal TA status into account as mentioned above. In addition, current study suggests that maternal TA status might affect neonatal susceptibility of TH disruption; in particular, p-interaction was significant in the associations between maternal PFTrDA and girl's FT3 shown in Table 6. However, the directions of B in linear regression analysis are almost the same between in TA-positive and TA-negative group (Supplemental Tables 4 and 5). Ultimately, it remains unclear how maternal TA status might modify the relationships between PFASs and neonatal THs. The relationships should be evaluated repeatedly in other cohorts.

译文

在母体TH分析中,当前研究发现两个TA组中PFAS和FT3之间均存在显着的正相关。与假设相反,我们的结果并未发现TA阳性母亲比TA阴性母亲更易感。 Reardon等。 (2019)建议,TA阳性母亲对THAS的PFAS效应敏感性取决于妊娠阶段。进行TH测量的采血时间可能是一个重要因素,因为妊娠期间的循环TH水平在孕周会发生巨大变化(Webster等,2014;孕15-18周之间,Preston等,2018;中位数9.6)。妊娠周,以及当前研究;妊娠11.35周)。妊娠中期,胎儿甲状腺开始分泌激素(de Escobar等,2004; Obregon等,2007)。在怀孕初期,胎儿依赖母亲的TH,而母亲TH的稳态破坏会影响母亲和胎儿的健康。母体TH的缺乏或失衡可能会破坏胎儿的正常神经发育;因此,我们调查了孕妇TH对胎儿早期妊娠的影响。当前对产妇PFAS水平与产妇THs之间关联的分析被设计为横断面研究。 PFAS消除时间长,如Olsen等人所述。 (2007年)。因此,我们认为妊娠后期的PFAS水平也可以反映妊娠早期的PFAS水平。此外,我们将TgAb阳性母亲纳入TA阳性组,而先前的研究仅测量TPOAb。我们纳入了TgAb阳性的女性,因为TgAb的状态被认为是探索“多重打击假说”的重要影响因素。不幸的是,由于先前的研究没有测量TgAb,我们无法进一步推测差异。 Webster等。 (2016)报道了在PFAS-TH关系中高TPOAb和低碘暴露的联合作用。在进一步的研究中,其他因素也应被视为影响因素以及TA状态的一种。 PFAS可能破坏甲状腺的某些机制。与TH结合蛋白的竞争性结合(Weiss等,2009)和肝清除率的变化(Yu等,2009),导致T4降低,以及PFAS和FT3之间正向缔合的可能机制是脱碘酶的上调,将T4转化为T3(Yu等,2009)。在我们的研究中,PFHxS与较高的FT3和较高的FT4相关(p <0.010),而PFNA与较高的FT3和较低的FT4相关(不显着)。目前的结果表明,PFHxS和PFNA之间可能存在不同的机制,TA阳性和阴性组之间的敏感性不同。关于新生儿TH分析,Kim等。 (2011年)发现母体PFOS与胎儿总T3之间以及母体PFTrDA与胎儿总T3和T4水平之间呈负相关。此外,在44名韩国参与者中,孕妇PFOA与胎儿TSH呈正相关。一项荷兰研究(n = 83)发现,脐带血中PFOA含量高与女孩脚跟刺血中总T4水平升高有关(de Cock等,2014)。此外,我们先前曾报道母体全氟辛烷磺酸与男孩足跟刺TSH之间存在正相关关系(Kato等人,2016年),在本研究的所有男孩中也可见到。如先前的研究所示,目前的结果支持这样的假设:母亲的PFAS暴露会破坏新生儿的TH水平,尽管我们的结果无法与其他研究直接比较,因为先前的研究并未如上所述将母亲的TA状况分层考虑在内。此外,目前的研究表明,孕妇的TA状况可能会影响新生儿TH易感性。尤其是,在表6所示的孕产妇PFTrDA与女孩的FT3之间的关系中,p相互作用显着。但是,线性回归分析中B的方向在TA阳性和TA阴性组之间几乎相同(补充表4)。和5)。最终,尚不清楚母亲的TA状态如何改变PFAS与新生儿TH之间的关系。这些关系应在其他同类队列中反复评估。