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Toll-like Receptor

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语 跨膜蛋白

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

toll   英 /təʊl/   美 /tol/

释    义   vt. 征收;敲钟

               n. 通行费;代价;钟声

               vi. 鸣钟;征税

例    句   Toll is a fixed charged or tax for passage across a bridge or along a road. 通行费是为了通过一座桥梁或一条道路所要缴的固定费用或税款。

 

receptor   英 /rɪ'septə/   美 /rɪ'sɛptɚ/

释    义   n. [生化] 受体;接受器;感觉器官

例    句   Human tumor cells expressed high levels of growth factor and its receptor. 人类肿瘤细胞表达高水平的生长因子及其受体。

概述

Toll样受体(TLRs)是一类在先天免疫系统中起关键作用的蛋白质。它们是单一的,跨膜的,非催化性受体,通常在诸如巨噬细胞和树突细胞的前哨细胞上表达,其识别源自微生物的结构上保守的分子。一旦这些微生物突破了诸如皮肤或肠道粘膜等物理屏障,它们就会被TLR识别,然后激活免疫细胞反应。信号传导据信TLR起二聚体的作用。尽管大多数TLR似乎起同源二聚体的作用,但TLR2 与TLR1或TLR6 形成异二聚体,每个二聚体具有不同的配体特异性。TLR还可以依赖于其他共受体以获得完全配体

Toll-like receptors in the functional orientation of cardiac progenitor cells复制标题

Toll样受体在心脏祖细胞功能定位中的作用

发表时间:2019-04-25

影响因子:4.5

作者: Mohammadreza Yousefi

期刊:J CELL PHYSIOL

TLRs are composed of family, which response to pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by a numerous group of infectious microorganisms. This family is a group of transmembrane proteins that are highly conserved in all animals from insects to humans. Identification and classification of TLRs shed light on the better understanding of the innate immune system and/or cell function. Up to date, 10 members of TLRs in human and 13 orthologous members have been discovered in mice. According to the subcellular localization of TLRs, they can be divided into two main groups, including TLR1, 2, 4, 6, and 11 expressed on the plasma membrane, but other members TLR3, 7, 8, and 9 existed in the endolysosomal compartments. Each of the members of this family has specific cognate ligands. For example, TLR‐1 in cooperation with TLR‐6 or TLR‐2 can recognize different bacterial composites such as peptidoglycan, lipoprotein, and lipopeptides. Many viruses with double strand RNA are recognized by TLR3, while TLR‐7 and TLR‐8 recognize single strand RNA and imidazoquinolines. Also, TLR‐4 and TLR‐5 specifically attach to lipopolysaccharide and bacterial flagellin, respectively. TLR‐9 has a critical role in identifying oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) motifs. The extracellular domain of TLRs contains leucine‐rich repeats that interfere with PAMPs recognition and the intracellular domain contains toll‐interleukin 1 (IL‐1) receptor required for downstream signal transduction. TLRs per se stimulate the intracellular signaling pathway by the recognition of the PAMPs, leading to the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, type one interferon (IFN) and chemokine. By involving TLRs with their own PAMPs, the promotion of related signals results in activation of nuclear factor kappa‐light‐chain‐enhancer of activated B cells NF‐kB and activator protein 1. In addition, TLRs have a critical role in coronary heart diseases, asthma, inflammatory bowel diseases and so forth.

译文

TLR由家族组成,其响应于由许多传染性微生物表达的病原体相关分子模式(PAMP)。该家族是一组跨膜蛋白,在从昆虫到人类的所有动物中高度保守。 TLR的鉴定和分类揭示了对先天免疫系统和/或细胞功能的更好理解。迄今为止,已经在小鼠中发现了10名人类TLR成员和13名直系同源成员。根据TLR的亚细胞定位,它们可分为两大类,包括在质膜上表达的TLR1,2,4,6和11,但在内溶酶体区室中存在其他成员TLR3,7,8和9。 。该家族的每个成员都具有特定的同源配体。例如,TLR-1与TLR-6或TLR-2合作可识别不同的细菌复合物,例如肽聚糖,脂蛋白和脂肽。许多具有双链RNA的病毒被TLR3识别,而TLR-7和TLR-8识别单链RNA和咪唑喹啉。此外,TLR-4和TLR-5分别特异性附着于脂多糖和细菌鞭毛蛋白。 TLR-9在鉴定寡脱氧核苷酸(CpG)基序中具有关键作用。 TLR的细胞外结构域含有富含亮氨酸的重复序列,其干扰PAMP识别,并且细胞内结构域含有下游信号转导所需的toll-interleukin 1(IL-1)受体。 TLR本身通过识别PAMP刺激细胞内信号传导途径,导致炎性细胞因子,第一类干扰素(IFN)和趋化因子的合成。通过将TLR与其自身的PAMP结合,相关信号的促进导致激活的B细胞NF-kB和激活蛋白1的核因子κ-轻链增强子的激活。此外,TLR在冠心病中起关键作用。 ,哮喘,炎症性肠病等。