释 义 n. 泛激素，泛素
例 句 Scientists had shown previously that DNA repair was much less efficient when FANCI and FANCD2 lack the single ubiquitin.在此之前，科学家就已清楚，在FANCI和FANCD2缺少单泛素时，DNA修复基本无效。
作者： Andrea Díaz-Díaz
Hakai is a new class of the three families of RING-finger type E3 ubiquitin-ligases that contains a novel domain called HYB (Hakai pTyr-binding) whereby it interacts with the tyrosinephosphorylated substrates inducing their ubiquitination and degradation. So far, the best characterized substrate for Hakai is E-cadherin. Hakai interacts with the Src tyrosine-phosphorylated E-cadherin, inducing its ubiquitination and degradation, which in turn causes the alteration of cell- cell contacts. E-cadherin is the best-characterized member of the adherens junctions and its loss at cell-cell adhesions is a well stablished hallmark of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during tumor progression and metastasis. Hakai is not only involved in the regulation of cell– cell adhesions but also in regulating cell proliferation, cell motility and invasion. Importantly, Hakai is highly expressed in colon and lung cancer compared to human healthy tissues. Additional target proteins for Hakai, such as Cortactin or DOK1, have been identified, however, the functional significance is still unknown. Recently, we employed an iTRAQ approach and found differentially regulated proteins in epithelial MDCK cell lines stably expressing Hakai compared to non-transformed MDCK cells. Interestingly, several membrane-binding proteins, including Annexin A2, were confirmed to be decreased in Hakai-overexpressing cells while other proteins, such as Hsp90 chaperone, were slightly increased.