pancreatic 英 /ˌpæŋkriˈætɪk/ 美 /ˌpæŋkriˈætɪk/
释 义 adj. 胰的；胰腺的
例 句 Jobs was diagnosed with a rare form of pancreatic cancer in 2003, though he put off treatment until mid-2004.乔布斯在2003年被诊断出患了一种罕见的胰腺癌，虽然他一直将治疗推迟到2004年中。
释 义 n. 小岛（islet的复数）
例 句 The team noticed that in the daughters of fat fathers, these islets had shrunk, compared with those of the control daughters.莫里斯的团队注意到，和对照组的雌鼠相比，父亲肥胖的雌鼠身上发生了胰岛萎缩。
作者： Nadav Sharon
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing b cells. These cells reside within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, which also contain glucagon-generating a cells and small numbers of d, ε, and PP cells that produce the hormones somatostatin, ghrelin, and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively. Islet transplantation from cadavers has proved highly effective in alleviating T1D, but donor scarcity makes in vitro-generated islets an attractive substitute. Recent success with in vitro generation of insulin-producing b cells and a few other endocrine cell types from human pluripotent cells lends hope to establishing such an alternative source. However, increasing evidence indicates that proper glucose regulation requires coordination between the various islet cell types, and the islet’s internal arrangement supports that requirement. It may therefore be advantageous to produce whole islets in vitro rather than differentiating cells into a specific cell type. However, this requires recapitulating tissue morphogenesis in addition to cell differentiation. In mice, endocrine progenitors appear around E12.5, and their production rate peaks around E15.5, concurrent with an overall expansion of the primordial pancreas termed ‘‘the secondary transition’’. The endocrine progenitors emerge from a network of epithelial tubules, or ‘‘cords,’’ found in the core of the developing pancreas. New progenitors form in a continuous flux and differentiate toward their specific fate in an asynchronous manner. As cells differentiate, they are thought to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which renders them motile and allows them to migrate away from the cords, dispersing into the surrounding mesenchyme. Once they have acquired their particular fate and activated their specific hormones, the cells are believed to aggregate into small clusters that later constitute the complete islet. This dispersal-aggregation model describes how islets form and assemble away from the pancreatic ducts, which are likewise descendants of the epithelial cords. However, the model fails to explain how the differentiated endocrine cells find one another and assemble in the surrounding mesenchyme. Equally important, it does not explain how the islet acquires its final unique architecture. Mature islets in mice are built as an internal core of b cells surrounded by a mantle of a cells. In humans, this core-mantle architecture is maintained in small islets, whereas larger islets are built as composites of small core-mantle components.