摘要

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts many actions that improve glycemic control. GLP-1 stimulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protects β cells, while its extrapancreatic effects include cardioprotection, reduction of hepatic glucose production, and regulation of satiety. Although an appealing antidiabetic drug candidate, the rapid degradation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) means that its therapeutic use is unfeasible, and this prompted the development of two main GLP-1 therapies: long-acting GLP-1 analogs and DPP-4 inhibitors. In this review, we focus on the pancreatic effects exerted by current GLP-1 derivatives used to treat diabetes. Based on the results from in vitro and in vivo studies in humans and animal models, we describe the specific actions of GLP-1 analogs on the synthesis, processing, and secretion of insulin, islet morphology, and β cell proliferation and apoptosis.

译文

胰高血糖素样肽 1 (GLP-1) 发挥许多改善血糖控制的作用。GLP-1 刺激葡萄糖刺激的胰岛素分泌并保护 β 细胞,而其胰腺外作用包括心脏保护、减少肝脏葡萄糖生成和调节饱腹感。虽然是一种吸引人的抗糖尿病候选药物,但二肽基肽酶 4 (GLP-1) 对 DPP-4 的快速降解意味着其治疗用途不可行,这促使了两种主要的 GLP-1 疗法的发展: 长效 GLP-1 类似物和 DPP-4 抑制剂。在这篇综述中,我们关注当前用于治疗糖尿病的 GLP-1 衍生物所发挥的胰腺效应。基于人体和动物模型的体外和体内研究结果,我们描述了 GLP-1 类似物对胰岛素合成、加工和分泌、胰岛形态的具体作用。 β 细胞增殖和凋亡。

Pancreatic islets

内分泌 细胞 临床研究术语
概述  :  

胰岛是胰腺各区具有内分泌功能(激素产生)的细胞,在1869年德国病理解剖学家保罗朗格汉斯发现的。胰岛占胰脏体积的1%至2%,并接受胰岛10-15%的血流。胰岛以密度途径排列在整个人类胰腺中,在葡萄糖的代谢中很重要。 结构 大约有300万个胰岛以密度路线的形式分布在健康成年人的胰腺中,每个胰岛的直径平均约为0.1毫米(109微米)。每一个都通过一个薄的纤维结缔组织囊与周围的胰腺组织分开,该囊与整个胰腺其余部分交织的纤维结缔组织是连续的。

pancreatic 英 /ˌpæŋkriˈætɪk/  美 /ˌpæŋkriˈætɪk/

释    义   adj. 胰的;胰腺的

例    句   Jobs was diagnosed with a rare form of pancreatic cancer in 2003, though he put off treatment until mid-2004.乔布斯在2003年被诊断出患了一种罕见的胰腺癌,虽然他一直将治疗推迟到2004年中。

 

islets  

释    义   n. 小岛(islet的复数)

例    句   The team noticed that in the daughters of fat fathers, these islets had shrunk, compared with those of the control daughters.莫里斯的团队注意到,和对照组的雌鼠相比,父亲肥胖的雌鼠身上发生了胰岛萎缩。

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