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首页 > 医学词汇大全 > Protein kinase A
Protein kinase A

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语

词汇介绍

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解析

protein   英 /ˈprəʊtiːn/   美 /ˈproʊtiːn/

释    义   n. 蛋白质;朊

adj. 蛋白质的

例    句   China was the first country in the world to synthesize crystalline insulin, a bioactive protein.中国在世界上最早用人工方法合成一种有生物活力的蛋白质,结晶胰岛素。

 

kinase   英 /ˈkaɪneɪz/   美 /ˈkɪnneɪz/

释    义   n. [生化] 激酶;致活酶

例    句   Inherited deficiency of pyruvate kinase, a key glycolytic enzyme, causes ATP deficiency, which leads to reduced RBC life span and hemolytic anemia.糖酵解的关键酶--丙酮酸激酶,如果它有遗传缺陷,就导致会ATP缺乏、红细胞寿命缩短和溶血性贫血。

概述

在细胞生物学中,蛋白激酶A是一类酶,其活性取决于细胞中环状AMP的水平。PKA也称为cAMP依赖性蛋白激酶。蛋白激酶A在细胞中具有多种功能,包括调节糖原,糖和脂质代谢。 机制 胞质cAMP增加,两个cAMP分子与每个PKA调节亚基结合,调节亚基移出催化亚基的活性位点,R2C2络合物解离,游离的催化亚基与蛋白质相互作用以磷酸化Ser或Thr残基;然后,释放的催化亚基可以催化ATP末端磷酸在丝氨酸或苏氨酸残基上转移到蛋白质底物上。这种磷酸化通

Ending Restenosis: Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by cAMP复制标题

终点再狭窄: cAMP抑制血管平滑肌细胞增殖

发表时间:2019-11-16

影响因子:5.7

作者: Sarah A Smith

期刊:cells

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are highly specialised cells that reside in the media layer of blood vessels where their primary function is to contract and relax to regulate vessel tone and blood pressure. In healthy vessels, these contractile or differentiated VSMC express abundant contractile cytoskeletal proteins, but exhibit extremely low proliferation rates. Nevertheless, VSMC retain the ability to dramatically increase their rate of proliferation in response to vascular injury, to repair damage to the vessel wall. Defects in this repair capacity, due to replicative senescence or increase apoptosis, is associated with medial thinning and aneurysm formation This capacity has no doubt evolved to compensate for traumatic injury, but its importance has recently become central in clinical cardiology and vascular surgery owing to its role in atherosclerosis and the two effective interventions developed to treat symptomatic atherosclerotic disease, angioplasty and venous by-pass graft surgery. During atherosclerosis, medial VSMCs (or at least a small subpopulation of these) migrate to the developing lesion to generate a fibrous cap over lipid-rich lesions, which is believed to reduce the likelihood of thrombosis leading to myocardial, cerebral, renal and other tissue infarction. The initial success of balloon angioplasty, often with metal stent implantation, in opening up vessels narrowed by atherosclerotic plaques is sometimes reversed owing to restenosis by expanded VSMCs and their associated connective tissue. Likewise, vein by-pass grafts frequently fail thanks to growth of VSMC into a new occlusive intimal layer. Proliferation of VSMC is believed to play a key role in both restenosis, where anti-proliferative agents reduce its frequency, and vein graft intima formation based on measurements of increased mitosis. Hence targeting VSMC proliferation pharmacologically continues to be a clinically important goal.

译文

血管平滑肌细胞(Vascular smooth muscle cells,VSMC)是一种高度分化的细胞,位于血管的中层,其主要功能是收缩和放松,以调节血管张力和血压。在健康血管中,这些可收缩或分化的血管平滑肌细胞表达丰富的可收缩细胞骨架蛋白,但增殖率极低。尽管如此,血管平滑肌细胞仍然有能力在血管损伤时显著增加增殖率,修复血管壁损伤。这种修复能力的缺陷,由于复制性衰老或细胞凋亡的增加,与中膜变薄和动脉瘤的形成有关,这种能力无疑是为了弥补创伤,但由于其在动脉粥样硬化中的作用以及两种有效的干预措施(血管成形术和静脉旁路移植术)的发展,其重要性近来已成为临床心脏病和血管外科的中心。在动脉粥样硬化过程中,内侧血管平滑肌细胞(或至少一小部分血管平滑肌细胞)迁移到发展中的病变,在富含脂质的病变上形成纤维帽,这被认为可以降低血栓形成导致心肌、脑、肾和其他组织梗死的可能性。球囊血管成形术(通常是金属支架植入术)在打开由动脉粥样硬化斑块狭窄的血管方面的最初成功有时会由于扩张的血管平滑肌细胞及其相关结缔组织的再狭窄而逆转。同样,由于血管平滑肌细胞生长成一个新的闭塞内膜层,静脉旁路移植常常失败血管平滑肌细胞的增殖被认为在血管再狭窄(抗增殖剂减少血管再狭窄的发生率)和静脉移植物内膜形成(基于有丝分裂增加的测量)中起着关键作用。因此,靶向血管平滑肌细胞增殖的药理学研究仍然是临床上的一个重要目标。