protein 英 /ˈprəʊtiːn/ 美 /ˈproʊtiːn/
释 义 n. 蛋白质；朊
例 句 China was the first country in the world to synthesize crystalline insulin, a bioactive protein.中国在世界上最早用人工方法合成一种有生物活力的蛋白质，结晶胰岛素。
kinase 英 /ˈkaɪneɪz/ 美 /ˈkɪnneɪz/
释 义 n. [生化] 激酶；致活酶
例 句 Inherited deficiency of pyruvate kinase, a key glycolytic enzyme, causes ATP deficiency, which leads to reduced RBC life span and hemolytic anemia.糖酵解的关键酶--丙酮酸激酶，如果它有遗传缺陷，就导致会ATP缺乏、红细胞寿命缩短和溶血性贫血。
作者： Sarah A Smith
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are highly specialised cells that reside in the media layer of blood vessels where their primary function is to contract and relax to regulate vessel tone and blood pressure. In healthy vessels, these contractile or differentiated VSMC express abundant contractile cytoskeletal proteins, but exhibit extremely low proliferation rates. Nevertheless, VSMC retain the ability to dramatically increase their rate of proliferation in response to vascular injury, to repair damage to the vessel wall. Defects in this repair capacity, due to replicative senescence or increase apoptosis, is associated with medial thinning and aneurysm formation This capacity has no doubt evolved to compensate for traumatic injury, but its importance has recently become central in clinical cardiology and vascular surgery owing to its role in atherosclerosis and the two effective interventions developed to treat symptomatic atherosclerotic disease, angioplasty and venous by-pass graft surgery. During atherosclerosis, medial VSMCs (or at least a small subpopulation of these) migrate to the developing lesion to generate a fibrous cap over lipid-rich lesions, which is believed to reduce the likelihood of thrombosis leading to myocardial, cerebral, renal and other tissue infarction. The initial success of balloon angioplasty, often with metal stent implantation, in opening up vessels narrowed by atherosclerotic plaques is sometimes reversed owing to restenosis by expanded VSMCs and their associated connective tissue. Likewise, vein by-pass grafts frequently fail thanks to growth of VSMC into a new occlusive intimal layer. Proliferation of VSMC is believed to play a key role in both restenosis, where anti-proliferative agents reduce its frequency, and vein graft intima formation based on measurements of increased mitosis. Hence targeting VSMC proliferation pharmacologically continues to be a clinically important goal.