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Short-term e-cigarette vapour exposure causes vascular oxidative stress and dysfunction: evidence for a close connection to brain damage and a key role of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX-2).
短期电子烟蒸汽暴露会导致血管氧化应激和功能障碍: 证据表明与脑损伤和吞噬细胞 NADPH 氧化酶 (NOX-2) 的关键作用密切相关。
Oxidative stress Behavioural risk factor E-cigarette vapour Endothelial dysfunction Lifestyle drug
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摘要

AIMS:Electronic (e)-cigarettes have been marketed as a 'healthy' alternative to traditional combustible cigarettes and as an effective method of smoking cessation. There are, however, a paucity of data to support these claims. In fact, e-cigarettes are implicated in endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the vasculature and the lungs. The mechanisms underlying these side effects remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of e-cigarette vapour on vascular function in smokers and experimental animals to determine the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS AND RESULTS:Acute e-cigarette smoking produced a marked impairment of endothelial function in chronic smokers determined by flow-mediated dilation. In mice, e-cigarette vapour without nicotine had more detrimental effects on endothelial function, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation than vapour containing nicotine. These effects of e-cigarette vapour were largely absent in mice lacking phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) or upon treatment with the endothelin receptor blocker macitentan or the FOXO3 activator bepridil. We also established that the e-cigarette product acrolein, a reactive aldehyde, recapitulated many of the NOX-2-dependent effects of e-cigarette vapour using in vitro blood vessel incubation.
CONCLUSIONS:E-cigarette vapour exposure increases vascular, cerebral, and pulmonary oxidative stress via a NOX-2-dependent mechanism. Our study identifies the toxic aldehyde acrolein as a key mediator of the observed adverse vascular consequences. Thus, e-cigarettes have the potential to induce marked adverse cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular consequences. Since e-cigarette use is increasing, particularly amongst youth, our data suggest that aggressive steps are warranted to limit their health risks.

译文

目的: 电子香烟已经作为传统可燃香烟的 “健康” 替代品和有效的戒烟方法在市场上销售。然而,支持这些说法的数据很少。事实上,电子烟与血管系统和肺部的内皮功能障碍和氧化应激有关。这些副作用的潜在机制仍不清楚。在这里,我们研究了电子烟蒸汽对吸烟者和实验动物血管功能的影响,以确定潜在的机制。
方法和结果: 急性电子烟吸烟对慢性吸烟者的内皮功能产生了明显的损害,这是由流量介导的扩张决定的。在小鼠中,没有尼古丁的电子烟蒸汽比含有尼古丁的蒸汽对内皮功能、氧化应激、炎症和脂质过氧化的标记有更有害的影响。电子烟蒸汽的这些影响在缺乏吞噬细胞 NADPH 氧化酶 (NOX-2) 的小鼠中很大程度上不存在,或者在使用内皮素受体阻滞剂 macitentan 或 FOXO3 激活剂 bepridil 治疗时。我们还确定了电子烟产品丙烯醛,一种反应性醛,利用体外血管孵育概括了电子烟蒸汽的许多 NOX-2-dependent 效果。
结论: 电子烟蒸汽暴露通过 NOX-2-dependent 机制增加血管、大脑和肺的氧化应激。我们的研究确定毒性醛丙烯醛是观察到的不良血管后果的关键介质。因此,电子烟有可能诱发明显的心血管、肺和脑血管不良后果。由于电子烟的使用正在增加,特别是在年轻人中,我们的数据表明,必须采取积极措施来限制他们的健康风险。

Oxidative stress

内分泌 生化反应 临床研究术语
概述  :  

氧化应激反映了活性氧的系统表现与生物系统易于将活性中间体解毒或修复所造成的损害的能力之间的不平衡。细胞正常氧化还原状态的紊乱可通过产生过氧化物和自由基而引起毒性作用,这些过氧化物和自由基会破坏细胞的所有成分,包括蛋白质,脂质和DNA。氧化代谢产生的氧化应激会导致碱基损伤以及DNA链断裂。进一步,一些反应性氧化性物质作为氧化还原信号传导细胞信使。因此,氧化应激可导致细胞信号传导正常机制的破坏。 疾病相关 氧化应激被怀疑是在重要的

oxidative   英 /'ɒksɪdeɪtɪv/   美 /,ɑksə'detɪv/

释    义   adj. [化学] 氧化的

同根词   oxidized adj. 被氧化的;生锈的

               oxidation n. [化学] 氧化

               oxidized v. 氧化;生锈(oxidize的过去分词)

               oxidize vi. 氧化

               oxidize vt. 使氧化;使生锈

例    句   Robertson: Oxidative stress is an accumulation of molecules that comes about because of chemical reactions, or stuff we ingest, things that get in our body.罗伯逊:氧化应激是一种由化学反应或我们摄取的东西—即被我们身体吸收的物质—造成的毒性分子堆积。

 

stress   英 /stress/   美 /stress/

释    义   n. 压力;强调;紧张;重要性;重读

               vt. 强调;使紧张;加压力于;用重音读

同根词   adj. stressful 紧张的;有压力的

               n. stressor 紧张性刺激;光彩

例    句   The sadness, stress, pain, or anger is there whether you like it or not.不管你喜欢不喜欢,悲伤、压力、痛苦或愤怒都在那儿。

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