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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语 蛋白

词汇介绍

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解析

brain-derived  

释    义   脑源性

例    句   The gene controls a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which affects memory.这个基因控制一种影响记忆力的被称为脑源性神经营养因子的蛋白质。

 

neurotrophic   英/,njuərəu'trɔfik/

释    义   adj. 神经营养的;亲神经的;向神经的

例    句   They discovered that animals living in the enriched environment had higher levels of a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).他们发现生活在复杂环境下的小白鼠有一种名叫脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)的蛋白质水平较高。

 

factor    英 /ˈfæktə(r)/   美 /ˈfæktər/

释    义   n. 因素;要素;[物] 因数;代理人

               vi. 做代理商

               vt. 把…作为因素计入;代理经营;把…分解成

例    句   But this cannot be the only factor.但这不可能是唯一的因素。

概述

脑源性神经营养因子,也称为BDNF,是一种蛋白质,在人类中是由BDNF 基因编码的,BDNF是神经营养蛋白生长因子家族的成员,其与规范神经生长因子有关。在大脑和周围区域发现了神经营养因子。BDNF于1989年由Yves-Alain Barde和Hans Thoenen首次从猪脑中分离出来。 功能 BDNF作用于某些神经元中的中枢神经系统和周围神经系统,帮助支持现有神经元的存活,并鼓励生长和分化新的神经元和突触。在大脑中,它活跃

Sub-Chronic Consumption of Dark Chocolate Enhances Cognitive Function and Releases Nerve Growth Factors: A Parallel-Group Randomized Trial复制标题

亚慢性食用黑巧克力可增强认知功能并释放神经生长因子: 一项平行组随机试验

发表时间:2019-11-16

影响因子:4.2

作者: Eri Sumiyoshi

期刊:Nutrients

Theobromine is the primary  methylxanthine found in products made from cacao (Theobroma cacao). We previously reported that  theobromine acts as a  phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and permeates through the blood–brain barrier. Furthermore, cAMP signaling essentially influences the brain mechanism that mediates neural wiring and cognitive processes. An increase in intracellular cAMP level activates the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), which in turn, leads to the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the neurotrophins that mediates neuronal functions such as learning and memory. We also recently showed that theobromine-fed mice and rats performed better in memory tasks in a CREB/BDNF pathway-dependent manner. Chocolate consumption—including dark chocolate—has recently increased around the world. In particular, dark chocolate has become very popular as it contains high concentrations of cacao and may have more beneficial effects on human health compared with normal or milk chocolate. The cacao content variability (50% to 85%) can generate a one- to seven-fold difference in the  epicatechin and catechin content of chocolate, and the epicatechin content has been reported to vary from 4.4 mg per 40 g (50% cacao) to 31.7 mg per 40 g (85% cacao). Theobromine content also varies, from 75 mg per 50 g in milk chocolate (30% cacao) to 220 mg per 50 g in dark chocolate. In contrast, white chocolate is a cacao-free chocolate and contains few  flavonoids and methylxanthine. The taste of white chocolate is not as bitter as that of cacao-based chocolate.

译文

可可碱是一种主要的甲基黄嘌呤,存在于可可豆制品中。我们以前报道过可可碱作为磷酸二酯酶抑制剂,可增加细胞内环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)水平,并渗透到血脑屏障。此外,cAMP信号在本质上影响着介导神经线路和认知过程的大脑机制。细胞内cAMP水平升高激活cAMP反应元件结合蛋白(CREB),进而导致脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)的表达,BDNF是介导学习和记忆等神经功能的神经营养因子之一。我们最近还发现,用可可碱喂养的小鼠和大鼠以CREB/BDNF途径依赖的方式执行更好的记忆任务。包括黑巧克力在内的巧克力消费最近在全世界都有所增加。特别是,黑巧克力已经变得非常流行,因为它含有高浓度的可可,可能比普通巧克力或牛奶巧克力对人体健康有更有益的影响。可可含量的变异性(50%到85%)会导致巧克力中表儿茶素和儿茶素的含量相差1到7倍,据报道,表儿茶素的含量从每40克(50%可可)4.4毫克到每40克(85%可可)31.7毫克不等。可可碱的含量也各不相同,牛奶巧克力(30%可可)中可可碱含量为75毫克/50克,黑巧克力中可可碱含量为220毫克/50克。相比之下,白巧克力是一种不含可可的巧克力,含有少量的类黄酮和甲基黄嘌呤。白巧克力的味道没有可可基巧克力那么苦。