摘要

The retina is amongst the most metabolically active tissue in the body and, as such, requires a precise regulation of energy production proportional to consumption. Mitochondria play a crucial role in meeting the high metabolic demand of retinal neurons by maintaining a constant energy supply through oxidative  phosphorylation. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is generated by the electron transport chain complexes located within the cristae folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). In addition to energy production, mitochondria are essential for regulating a number of processes essential for neuronal functions including metabolic balance, intracellular calcium homeostasis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and  apoptotic signaling. With their high energy demand, complex dendritic arbors, and long axons, it is not surprising that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction. Indeed, inherited mitochondrial defects are associated with a number of optic neuropathies including Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and  autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), which are characterized by selective RGC death. Glaucoma, the most common optic neuropathy and the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, has not been linked to mutations that result in mitochondrial dysfunction. However, accumulating evidence indicates that age-related mitochondrial defects play a central role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.

译文

视网膜是体内代谢最活跃的组织之一,因此,需要精确调节能量的产生与消耗成比例。线粒体通过维持氧化磷酸化维持恒定的能量供应,在满足视网膜神经元的高代谢需求方面起着至关重要的作用。三磷酸腺苷(ATP)是由线粒体内膜嵴褶内的电子传递链复合物产生的。除了能量产生外,线粒体对于调节神经元功能所必需的许多过程也是必不可少的,这些过程包括代谢平衡、细胞内钙稳态、活性氧(ROS)的产生和凋亡信号。视网膜神经节细胞(RGCs)具有高能量需求、复杂的树突状树突和长轴突等特点,因此对线粒体功能的损害尤为严重。事实上,遗传性线粒体缺陷与许多视神经病变有关,包括Leber遗传性视神经病变(LHON)和常染色体显性视神经萎缩(ADOA),其特征是选择性RGC死亡。青光眼是世界范围内最常见的视神经病变,也是导致不可逆性失明的主要原因,但与导致线粒体功能障碍的突变无关。然而,越来越多的证据表明,年龄相关的线粒体缺陷在青光眼的发病机制中起着重要作用。

Retinal ganglion cell

内分泌 细胞 临床研究术语
概述  :  

视网膜神经节细胞(RGC)的大小,连接和对视觉刺激的反应差异很大,但它们都具有长轴突延伸到大脑的决定性特性。这些轴突形成视神经,视交叉和视束。一小部分的视网膜神经节细胞对视力几乎没有或没有任何作用,但它们本身是光敏的。它们的轴突形成视网膜下丘脑束,有助于昼夜节律和瞳孔光反射,从而调节瞳孔的大小。 功能 人的视网膜中约有0.7至150万个视网膜神经节细胞,大约有460万个视锥细胞和9200万个视杆细胞,每个视网膜有9660万个感

retinal   英 /ˈretɪnl/   美 /ˈretɪnl/

释    义   adj. 视网膜的

               n. [生化] 视黄醛(等于retinene)

同根词   retina n. [解剖] 视网膜

例    句   If this high concentration of blood sugar continues for a long period, it will affect the vascular system and cause serious diseases including arteriosclerosis and retinal hemorrhages.如果这种高血糖浓度状况持续一段长时期,将影响到血管系统并导致包括动脉硬化和视网膜出血在内的严重疾病。

 

ganglion   英 /ˈɡæŋɡliən/   美 /ˈɡæŋɡliən/

释    义   n. [组织] 神经节;[医] 腱鞘囊肿

例    句   But unlike rods and cones, melanopsin ganglion cells send their signals to the part of the brain that regulates the body’s master clock.但是,与前两者不同的是,黑视素神经节细胞将信号传送到负责调节身体主时钟的大脑区域。

 

cell   英 /sel/   美 /sel/

释    义   n. 细胞;电池;蜂房的巢室;单人小室

               vi. 住在牢房或小室中

               n. (Cell)人名;(英)塞尔

同根词   cellularity n. 细胞性;多孔性;细胞结构

例    句   so, essentially, they're establishing or controlling or changing the difference between the charge inside the cell and the charge outside cell.因此本质上来说,它们制造或者控制或者改变,细胞内外电荷之间的电位差。

请扫描右侧二维码,免费查看词汇专业知识背景