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Glycogen

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语 血糖

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Glycogen   英 /'glaɪkədʒ(ə)n/   美 /'glaɪkodʒən/

释    义   n. 糖原;动物淀粉

例    句   The reason for this is that carbohydrate consumption stimulates insulin production, which aids the production of muscle glycogen.这是因为是碳水化合物的消耗刺激了胰岛素的分泌,后者对于肌肉糖原产生有帮助。

概述

糖原是动物、真菌和细菌中多支链多糖的葡萄糖用作能量存储在的一种形式,多糖结构代表体内葡萄糖的主要存储形式。糖原起长期能量储备的两种形式之一的作用,另一种形式是甘油三酸酯存储在脂肪组织中(即人体脂肪)。功能①肝:当一餐含有碳水化合物或蛋白质的食物被食用和消化时,血糖水平会上升,并且胰腺会分泌胰岛素。门静脉的血糖进入肝细胞。胰岛素作用于肝细胞,刺激包括糖原合酶在内的几种酶的作用。只要胰岛素和葡萄糖都充足,就将葡萄糖分子添加到糖原链中。在餐后或“进食”状态下,肝脏从血液中吸收的葡萄糖多于其释放的葡

Aqueous extract of Digitaria exilis gra4ins ameliorate diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats复制标题

洋地黄水提物改善链脲佐菌素诱导的糖尿病雄性Wistar大鼠的糖尿病

发表时间:2019-11-13

影响因子:3.4

作者: Adams Dele Moses

期刊:J Ethnopharmacol

Streptozotocin has been accepted as the first line choice for the induction of diabetes in experimental animals (Lenzen, 2008). It is selectively accumulated in the β-cells of the pancreas via the low-affinity GLUT2 glucose transporter in the plasma membrane. The transfer of the methyl group from streptozotocin to the DNA molecule results in a cascade of event, including activation of poly ADP-ribosylation which depletes NAD+ and ATP and generation of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals from the enhanced dephosphorylation of ATP. In addition, other toxic amount of nitric oxide generated by STZ also inhibits aconitase activity and participates in DNA damage. Protein glycosylation may be an additional damaging factor. All these inhibit the secretion of insulin that eventually gives rise to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Normally, cells of the pancreas maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow limit by modulating the activity of the β-cells of the Islets of Langerhans through secretion of insulin. Therefore, the elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia) in the male rats after the administration of STZ may be adduced to impairment in the release of insulin as a consequence of the destroyed βcells of Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. In contrast, the lowered blood glucose levels and the ameliorative effects of the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight suggests that the extract increased the functional activity of the pancreas to secrete insulin. The enhanced secretion of insulin by the extract of D. exilis grains could be linked to the increase in pancreatic insulin in the present study. The extract-induced increase in the secretion of insulin by the pancreas as a response to the STZ-induced hyperglycermia might have promoted the up-take of glucose from the blood for energy production and thus restored the glycemic state of the animals. Therefore, the aqueous extract of D. exilis grains might possess an insulin-like effect or stimulate insulin secretion from β-cells. The findings with respect to the extract normalising hyperglycemia induced by STZ is similar to that reported by El-Quady et al. (2019).

译文

链脲佐菌素已被公认为实验动物诱导糖尿病的一线选择(Lenzen,2008)。通过低亲和力GLUT2葡萄糖转运蛋白在胰腺β细胞中选择性地积累。从链脲佐菌素向DNA分子的转移导致了一系列事件的发生,包括活化ADP和ATP的聚ADP核糖转移酶和ATP增强去磷酸化产生超氧阴离子、过氧化氢和羟基自由基。此外,STZ产生的其他有毒量的一氧化氮也抑制乌头酸酶活性并参与DNA损伤。蛋白质糖基化可能是一个额外的损害因素。所有这些都抑制了最终导致胰岛素依赖型糖尿病的胰岛素分泌。正常情况下,胰腺细胞通过分泌胰岛素调节胰岛β细胞的活性,将血糖水平维持在一个狭窄的范围内。因此,雄性大鼠服用STZ后的血糖升高(高血糖)可能是由于胰岛β细胞受损而导致胰岛素释放受损。相比之下,降低的血糖水平和提取物对100和200毫克/千克体重的改善作用表明,提取物增加了胰腺分泌胰岛素的功能活性。在本研究中,由Exd谷物提取物提取的胰岛素分泌增强可能与胰腺胰岛素的增加有关。提取物诱导胰腺分泌胰岛素的增加,作为对STZ诱导的高血糖的反应,可能促进了从血液中摄取葡萄糖以产生能量,从而恢复了动物的血糖状态。因此,刺五加籽粒的水提物可能具有胰岛素样作用或刺激β细胞分泌胰岛素。关于STZ诱导的提取物正常化高血糖的发现与El Quady等报道的结果相似。(2019年)。