Glycogen 英 /'glaɪkədʒ(ə)n/ 美 /'glaɪkodʒən/
释 义 n. 糖原；动物淀粉
例 句 The reason for this is that carbohydrate consumption stimulates insulin production, which aids the production of muscle glycogen.这是因为是碳水化合物的消耗刺激了胰岛素的分泌，后者对于肌肉糖原产生有帮助。
作者： Adams Dele Moses
Streptozotocin has been accepted as the first line choice for the induction of diabetes in experimental animals (Lenzen, 2008). It is selectively accumulated in the β-cells of the pancreas via the low-affinity GLUT2 glucose transporter in the plasma membrane. The transfer of the methyl group from streptozotocin to the DNA molecule results in a cascade of event, including activation of poly ADP-ribosylation which depletes NAD+ and ATP and generation of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals from the enhanced dephosphorylation of ATP. In addition, other toxic amount of nitric oxide generated by STZ also inhibits aconitase activity and participates in DNA damage. Protein glycosylation may be an additional damaging factor. All these inhibit the secretion of insulin that eventually gives rise to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Normally, cells of the pancreas maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow limit by modulating the activity of the β-cells of the Islets of Langerhans through secretion of insulin. Therefore, the elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia) in the male rats after the administration of STZ may be adduced to impairment in the release of insulin as a consequence of the destroyed βcells of Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. In contrast, the lowered blood glucose levels and the ameliorative effects of the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight suggests that the extract increased the functional activity of the pancreas to secrete insulin. The enhanced secretion of insulin by the extract of D. exilis grains could be linked to the increase in pancreatic insulin in the present study. The extract-induced increase in the secretion of insulin by the pancreas as a response to the STZ-induced hyperglycermia might have promoted the up-take of glucose from the blood for energy production and thus restored the glycemic state of the animals. Therefore, the aqueous extract of D. exilis grains might possess an insulin-like effect or stimulate insulin secretion from β-cells. The findings with respect to the extract normalising hyperglycemia induced by STZ is similar to that reported by El-Quady et al. (2019).