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Astroglial

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语 细胞

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

astroglial

释    义   n. 星状胶质细胞

例    句   Astroglial cells or astrocytes are specialized cells that support neuron function with nutrients and protective buffering.星形胶质细胞是一种特殊细胞,它能够通过释放营养素和缓冲保护作用支持神经元的功能。

概述

星形胶质细胞是在脑和脊髓中的特性星形胶质细胞。大脑中星形胶质细胞的比例尚不明确。根据所使用的计数技术,研究发现星形胶质细胞的比例随区域而异,占所有神经胶质细胞的 20%至40%。它们执行许多功能,包括形成内皮细胞、血脑屏障,为神经组织提供营养,维持细胞外离子平衡,以及在创伤后脑和脊髓的修复和瘢痕形成过程中发挥作用。结构星形胶质细胞是中枢神经系统中神经胶质细胞的一种亚型,呈星形,它们的许多过程都包裹着神经元产生的突触。传统上使用组织学分析鉴定星形胶质细胞。这些细胞中的许多表达中间丝状神经胶质原

Chronic Exposure to High Altitude: Synaptic, Astroglial and Memory Changes 复制标题

高海拔慢性暴露: 突触、星形胶质细胞和记忆改变

发表时间:2019-11-11

影响因子:4.0

作者: Rupali Sharma

期刊:Sci Rep

Previous studies have shown that astrocytes have diverse functions such as establishing direct contact with neurons and secreting soluble factors at the pre-and post-synaptic sites thus modulating the structure and function of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses leading to changes in synaptic transmission. In regards to hypobaria-hypoxia, it has been shown that there is an increase in astrogliosis in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, as indicated by elevated expression of GFAP86,87. As further novelty, our findings reveal a decrease in GFAP expression in the cerebellum. It is intriguing that we observed these additional changes in the cerebellum, although at a different time point. A study by Dheer et al. studied CEHA in rats, where they observed activation of astrocytes in CA1 region of hippocampus at 7 and 14 days exposure; while Li et al., observed increased GFAP expression between 7–14 days in cortex and brainstem. The apparent discrepancy between our and their results could be due to multiple factors. One major factor is represented by the time duration, our mice in fact were exposed to a longer duration of HA, which is a chronic exposure, while their rats were exposed for a shorter period of time. Another difference is in the pressure of the hypobaric chamber, which was p=282mm/Hg (equivalent to 5.45psi) for their experiments, and ~7.4psi (equivalent to 382.69mm/Hg) for our experiments. A further difference consists in their experimental animals, which were rats while ours were mice. All these factors could have contributed to the apparent discrepancy and it is possible then that the observed decrease in GFAP, along with the decrease in other synaptic proteins, are indeed signals of decreased synaptic activity in a more generalized context of neuroplasticity occurring in response to CEHA.

译文

以往的研究表明,星形胶质细胞具有多种功能,如与神经元直接接触,在突触前后分泌可溶性因子,从而调节兴奋性和抑制性突触的结构和功能,导致突触传递的改变。关于低氧血症,已经表明,在海马CA1区的星形胶质细胞增多,如GFAP86、77的表达升高。作为进一步的新发现,我们的发现揭示了GFAP在小脑中的表达减少。有趣的是,我们观察到小脑的这些额外变化,尽管是在不同的时间点。Dheer等人的研究。研究了大鼠的CEHA,他们观察到暴露7天和14天时海马CA1区星形胶质细胞的激活;而Li等人观察到7-14天时皮层和脑干GFAP的表达增加。我们的结果和他们的结果之间的明显差异可能是多种因素造成的。一个主要的因素是持续时间,我们的老鼠实际上暴露在一个较长的持续时间的HA,这是一个慢性暴露,而他们的老鼠暴露在一个较短的时间。另一个区别是减压室的压力,他们的实验是p=282mm/Hg(相当于5.45psi),我们的实验是~7.4psi(相当于382.69mm/Hg)。另一个区别在于他们的实验动物是老鼠,而我们的是老鼠。所有这些因素都可能是造成这种明显差异的原因,因此有可能观察到的GFAP的减少,以及其他突触蛋白的减少,确实是突触活动减少的信号,在更广泛的神经可塑性背景下,发生了对CEHA的反应。