摘要

In the pediatric population, hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis is seen in the neonatal period as a result of idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis leading to chronic gastric outlet obstruction. Less common causes of pediatric gastric outlet obstruction include malrotation, midgut volvulus, and antral webs in the first year of life and Crohn disease and hiatus hernia in later childhood. Neoplasia, although rare in childhood, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In addition to primary gastric lymphoma and adenocarcinoma, external compression can result from a wide range of tumors, including hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatoblastomas, and soft-tissue sarcomas of the mesentery or abdominal viscera. Before the recognition of the pathophysiological role of Helicobacter pylori and the subsequent adherence to targeted Helicobacter pylori eradication protocols, peptic ulcer disease was thought to be responsible for up to 90% of cases of gastric outlet obstruction in adults. It is infrequently seen in childhood. Obstruction results from acute peptic ulcers due to inflammation-induced edema and tissue deformation, whereas chronic peptic ulcer disease leads to scarring and tissue remodeling as part of the healing process. The vomiting in gastric outlet obstruction is forceful and often described as “projectile.” It occurs predominantly as a result of mechanical obstruction with repetitive gastric contractions generating a pressure gradient leading to evacuation of accumulated gastric contents. Helicobacter pylori infection is commonly associated with dyspepsia and nausea, which may exacerbate the vomiting.

译文

在儿科人群中,由于特发性肥厚性幽门狭窄导致新生儿慢性胃出口梗阻,新生儿期出现低血钾,低氯性代谢性碱中毒。小儿胃出口梗阻的较不常见原因包括:出生后第一年出现旋转异常,中肠扭转和肛门网,以及儿童期后的克罗恩病和裂孔疝。瘤形成虽然在儿童时期很少见,但在鉴别诊断中应考虑。除原发性胃淋巴瘤和腺癌外,各种肿瘤还可能导致外部压迫,包括肝母细胞瘤,肝细胞癌,胰腺母细胞瘤和肠系膜或腹腔内脏的软组织肉瘤。在认识到幽门螺杆菌的病理生理作用并随后遵循针对性的幽门螺杆菌根除方案之前,消化性溃疡疾病被认为是成年人高达90%的胃出口阻塞的原因。在儿童时期很少见到。由炎症引起的水肿和组织变形引起的急性消化性溃疡引起阻塞,而慢性消化性溃疡疾病导致疤痕和组织重塑,这是愈合过程的一部分。胃出口梗阻的呕吐是有力的,通常被描述为“射弹”。它主要是由于机械性阻塞引起的,反复的胃收缩产生压力梯度,从而导致累积的胃内容物排空。幽门螺杆菌感染通常与消化不良和恶心有关,这可能会加剧呕吐。

Metabolic alkalosis

内分泌 代谢性疾病 疾病
概述  :  

代谢性碱中毒是一种代谢性疾病,其中组织的pH升高至正常范围(7.35-7.45)以上。这是氢离子浓度降低导致碳酸氢根浓度升高的结果,或者是碳酸氢根浓度升高的直接结果。如果肾脏功能正常,该病通常不能持续很长时间。病理生理学氢离子的损失-最常见的是通过呕吐或肾脏两种机制引起的。呕吐导致胃内容物损失盐酸(氢和氯离子),剧烈呕吐会导致钾(低血钾)和钠(低钠血症)的流失。肾脏通过将钠保留在收集管中以弥补氢离子的损失来弥补这些损失(保留钠/钾泵以防止钾的进一步损失),从而导致代谢性碱中毒。先天性氯化物腹

metabolic   英 /ˌmetəˈbɒlɪk/   美 /ˌmetəˈbɑːlɪk/

释    义   adj. 变化的;新陈代谢的

同根词   metabolism n. [生理] 新陈代谢

               metabolize vi. 新陈代谢

               metabolize vt. 使新陈代谢;使变形

例    句   Phospholipids is the basic composition of membrane material, its synthesis and metabolic activity not only play an important physiological role in the cells.磷脂作为生物膜的基本组成物质,其合成和代谢不仅在细胞生理活动中发挥重要的角色。

 

alkalosis   英 /,ælkə'ləʊsɪs/   美 /,ælkə'losɪs/

释    义   n. 碱中毒,碱毒症

例    句   Graph of changed scope of compliance about renal participating in compensatory adjustment were drawn out in chronic respiratory acidosis and alkalosis separately.分别绘制了慢性呼吸性酸、碱中毒时,肾参与代偿调节顺应性的变化范围曲线图。

请扫描右侧二维码,免费查看词汇专业知识背景