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首页 > 医学词汇大全 > Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 diabetes mellitus

内分泌

关键词内分泌 疾病 糖尿病

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

type   英 /taɪp/   美 /taɪp/

释    义   n. 类型,品种;模范;样式

               vt. 打字;测定(血等)类型

               vi. 打字

               n. (Type)人名;(英)泰普

同根词   typewritten adj. 用打字机打出的,打字的

               typewriter n. 打字机

               typewriting v. 用打字机打

例    句   What type of movies do you like?你喜欢看哪种类型的电影?

 

diabetes   英 /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz/   美 /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz/

释    义   n. 糖尿病;多尿症

同根词   diabetic adj. 糖尿病的,患糖尿病的

               diabetic n. 糖尿病患者

例    句   It is like diabetes or asthma, an illness, due to a build up of pressures, which can happen to anyone. 就像是糖尿病或者哮喘,由于压力的形成,这种病有可能发生在任何人身上。

 

mellitus

释    义   n. 糖尿病

例    句   Gestational diabetes mellitus is that sugar metabolism unusual first happens or be found during pregnancy, is one of the most common obstetrics complications. 妊娠期糖尿病是妊娠期首次发生或发现的糖代谢异常,是妊娠期最常见的产科并发症之一。

概述

1型糖尿病是指人体无法产生足够的胰岛素来控制血糖水平的疾病。1型糖尿病以前称为胰岛素依赖型糖尿病或青少年糖尿病。1型糖尿病是一种自身免疫性疾病,这意味着当人体的免疫系统攻击体内的细胞时就开始了。在1型糖尿病中,免疫系统会破坏胰腺中的胰岛素产生细胞(β细胞)。诊断最常见的年龄是10至16岁,1型糖尿病对男性和女性的影响相同。临床表现症状通常突然而强烈,通常最突出的症状是排尿过多和口渴,这是因为血液中葡萄糖的增加导致肾脏比平时产生更多的尿液。尿液中流失的液体会使人脱水,脱水导致口渴,儿童可能会再

Gene therapy and type 1 diabetes mellitus复制标题

基因治疗与1型糖尿病

发表时间:2018-12-01

影响因子:3.7

作者: Dinesh Kumar Chellappana

期刊:Biomed Pharmacother

Gene therapy is the technique of delivering or manipulating genetic material inside the cell as a therapeutic approach to treat disease. It aims to correct defective genes that are responsible for disease development and effectively prevents disease onset or halts its progression. The three main intervention techniques in gene therapy include, a) introducing a new gene into the body, b) replacing faulty genes with functional genes and c) by inactivating defective genes causing the disease. There are two common types of gene therapy, namely somatic gene therapy, as the name implies, targets on somatic cells which in this case refers to the diseased cells, whereas, germline gene therapy targets on reproductive cells to prevent disease development in subsequent generations. Gene therapy has emerged as one of the current trends in therapeutics for its potential to treat various diseases such as autoimmune diseases, diabetes, cancers and heart diseases that cannot be cured using conventional therapies. In this review, we primarily focus on gene therapy interventions in the management of T1DM. T1DM is an autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated self-destruction of insulin-secreting islet β cells in the pancreas. Like any other autoimmune diseases, the etiology of T1DM is complex and can result from both environmental and genetic factors. During the past few decades, researchers have successfully identified several genes that are responsible for the development of T1DM. Hence, the alteration or manipulation of these genes by gene therapy approach could possibly provide a more holistic disease management or even cure T1DM. Despite the potential benefits, there could be also challenges that are associated with gene therapy. For instance, genes delivered using a viral vector may trigger unnecessary immune response and worsen the disease condition. Moreover, studies on gene therapy are still largely conducted in animal models and the safety aspects of gene therapy is yet to be established in humans. This review has attempted to collectively gather every type of genetic interventions that is available or being studied in the treatment of T1DM. We have reviewed the literature in terms of overexpression of genes and proteins needed against T1DM using gene therapy, transplantation of cells expressing gene against T1DM or stem-cells mediated gene therapy, genetic vaccination, immunological precursor cellmediated gene therapy and vectors used in gene therapy for T1DM.

译文

基因治疗是在细胞内传递或操纵遗传物质的技术,是治疗疾病的一种治疗方法。它旨在纠正导致疾病发展的缺陷基因,有效地防止疾病的发生或停止其发展。基因治疗中的三种主要干预技术包括:a)将新基因导入人体;b)用功能基因替换有缺陷的基因;c)通过灭活导致疾病的缺陷基因。基因治疗有两种常见类型,即体细胞基因治疗,顾名思义,靶向体细胞,在本例中指患病细胞,而生殖系基因治疗靶向生殖细胞,以防止后代疾病发展。基因治疗因其治疗自身免疫性疾病、糖尿病、癌症和心脏病等常规治疗无法治愈的疾病的潜力而成为当前治疗学的趋势之一。在这篇综述中,我们主要关注基因治疗干预在治疗T1DM中的作用。T1DM是一种自身免疫性疾病,其特点是T细胞介导的胰岛β细胞的自我破坏。与其他自身免疫性疾病一样,T1DM的病因复杂,既有环境因素,也有遗传因素。在过去的几十年里,研究人员已经成功地识别出了几个与T1DM发生有关的基因。因此,通过基因治疗方法改变或操纵这些基因可能提供更全面的疾病管理,甚至治愈T1DM。尽管有潜在的好处,但也可能存在与基因治疗相关的挑战。例如,使用病毒载体传递的基因可能引发不必要的免疫反应,并使疾病恶化。此外,基因治疗的研究仍主要在动物模型中进行,而基因治疗的安全性尚未在人类中得到证实。本综述试图收集治疗T1DM过程中可用或正在研究的各种基因干预措施。我们综述了利用基因治疗对T1DM所需的基因和蛋白质的过度表达、对T1DM表达基因的细胞或干细胞介导的基因治疗的移植、基因疫苗、免疫前体细胞介导的基因治疗和用于T1DM基因治疗的载体等方面的文献。