type 英 /taɪp/ 美 /taɪp/
释 义 n. 类型，品种；模范；样式
同根词 typewritten adj. 用打字机打出的，打字的
typewriter n. 打字机
typewriting v. 用打字机打
例 句 What type of movies do you like?你喜欢看哪种类型的电影?
diabetes 英 /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz/ 美 /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz/
释 义 n. 糖尿病；多尿症
同根词 diabetic adj. 糖尿病的，患糖尿病的
diabetic n. 糖尿病患者
例 句 It is like diabetes or asthma, an illness, due to a build up of pressures, which can happen to anyone. 就像是糖尿病或者哮喘，由于压力的形成，这种病有可能发生在任何人身上。
释 义 n. 糖尿病
例 句 Gestational diabetes mellitus is that sugar metabolism unusual first happens or be found during pregnancy, is one of the most common obstetrics complications. 妊娠期糖尿病是妊娠期首次发生或发现的糖代谢异常，是妊娠期最常见的产科并发症之一。
作者： Dinesh Kumar Chellappana
Gene therapy is the technique of delivering or manipulating genetic material inside the cell as a therapeutic approach to treat disease. It aims to correct defective genes that are responsible for disease development and effectively prevents disease onset or halts its progression. The three main intervention techniques in gene therapy include, a) introducing a new gene into the body, b) replacing faulty genes with functional genes and c) by inactivating defective genes causing the disease. There are two common types of gene therapy, namely somatic gene therapy, as the name implies, targets on somatic cells which in this case refers to the diseased cells, whereas, germline gene therapy targets on reproductive cells to prevent disease development in subsequent generations. Gene therapy has emerged as one of the current trends in therapeutics for its potential to treat various diseases such as autoimmune diseases, diabetes, cancers and heart diseases that cannot be cured using conventional therapies. In this review, we primarily focus on gene therapy interventions in the management of T1DM. T1DM is an autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated self-destruction of insulin-secreting islet β cells in the pancreas. Like any other autoimmune diseases, the etiology of T1DM is complex and can result from both environmental and genetic factors. During the past few decades, researchers have successfully identified several genes that are responsible for the development of T1DM. Hence, the alteration or manipulation of these genes by gene therapy approach could possibly provide a more holistic disease management or even cure T1DM. Despite the potential benefits, there could be also challenges that are associated with gene therapy. For instance, genes delivered using a viral vector may trigger unnecessary immune response and worsen the disease condition. Moreover, studies on gene therapy are still largely conducted in animal models and the safety aspects of gene therapy is yet to be established in humans. This review has attempted to collectively gather every type of genetic interventions that is available or being studied in the treatment of T1DM. We have reviewed the literature in terms of overexpression of genes and proteins needed against T1DM using gene therapy, transplantation of cells expressing gene against T1DM or stem-cells mediated gene therapy, genetic vaccination, immunological precursor cellmediated gene therapy and vectors used in gene therapy for T1DM.