superoxide 英 /,supər'ɑksaɪd/
释 义 n. 超氧化物；过氧化物
例 句 In renal cortex homogenate , the contents of malonaldehyde and activity of superoxide dismutase were measured. 肾皮质制备匀浆检测丙二醛含量和超氧化物歧化酶活性。
释 义 n. 岐化酶
例 句 It assists in detoxification processes in the liver by increasing the activity of super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase.它协助通过增加肝脏超氧化物歧化酶和谷胱甘肽过氧化酶活性的解毒过程。
作者： Susan Darroudi
Oxidative stress is due to an imbalance between the production and breakdown of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species. Antioxidant systems may be related to the development of oxidative alterations in arterial cells and lead to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme, involved in the catabolism of the superoxide anion. A particularly important pathophysiological event related to ROS is oxidation of lipids, in particular of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a process that is central to atherosclerotic lesion formation. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of mortality in the world. Despite recognition of traditional risk factors for CAD including smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, physical inactivity, and dyslipidemia, the occurrence of CAD is growing. Atherosclerosis is now recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease that can lead to CVD. Atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular endothelial cell injury results from high levels of ROS. SOD is an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and plays a pivotal role in balancing the concentration of ROS. Three isoforms of SOD are reported in humans, that encoded by different genes. SOD1 isoform in blood circulation explaining 85% of the SOD activity related to SOD polypeptide. The gene encoding SOD1 polypeptide is located on human chromosome 21q22. and there are five exons and four introns in this area, and the sod1 promoter has a high GC-rich region, as well as TATA box and CCAAT box (Figure 1). Regulation of the SOD genes may play a role in modulating the concentrations of ROS. The compartmentalization and control of SODs at both expression and activity levels contribute to the level of SOD activity and consequently local ROS concentrations.