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Superoxide dismutase

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语

词汇介绍

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解析

superoxide   英 /,supər'ɑksaɪd/

释    义   n. 超氧化物;过氧化物

例    句   In renal cortex homogenate , the contents of malonaldehyde and activity of superoxide dismutase were measured. 肾皮质制备匀浆检测丙二醛含量和超氧化物歧化酶活性。

 

dismutase   英/dis'mju:teis/

释    义   n. 岐化酶

例    句   It assists in detoxification processes in the liver by increasing the activity of super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase.它协助通过增加肝脏超氧化物歧化酶和谷胱甘肽过氧化酶活性的解毒过程。

概述

超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)是一种酶,其交替地催化歧化的(或者分区)超氧化物基团为任一普通分子氧或过氧化氢。超氧化物是氧代谢的副产物,如果不加以控制,会引起多种类型的细胞损伤。过氧化氢也具有破坏性,并且会被其他酶(例如过氧化氢酶)降解。因此,SOD是几乎所有暴露于氧气的活细胞中重要的抗氧化剂。一个例外是植物乳杆菌和相关的乳杆菌,其使用不同的机制,以防止反应性损伤。生理学超氧化物是细胞中主要的活性氧之一,SOD发挥了重要的抗氧化剂作用。SODs的生理重要性可以通过基因工程改造的小鼠缺乏这些酶的严重

50 bp deletion in promoter superoxide dismutase 1 gene and increasing risk of cardiovascular disease in Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder cohort study复制标题

Mashhad卒中和心脏动脉粥样硬化障碍队列研究中启动子超氧化物歧化酶1基因50 bp缺失与心血管疾病风险增加

发表时间:2019-10-31

影响因子:3.6

作者: Susan Darroudi

期刊:BioFactors

Oxidative stress is due to an imbalance between the production and breakdown of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species. Antioxidant systems may be related to the development of oxidative alterations in arterial cells and lead to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme, involved in the catabolism of the superoxide anion. A particularly important pathophysiological event related to ROS is oxidation of lipids, in particular of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a process that is central to atherosclerotic lesion formation. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of mortality in the world. Despite recognition of traditional risk factors for CAD including smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, physical inactivity, and dyslipidemia, the occurrence of CAD is growing. Atherosclerosis is now recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease that can lead to CVD. Atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular endothelial cell injury results from high levels of ROS. SOD is an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and plays a pivotal role in balancing the concentration of ROS. Three isoforms of SOD are reported in humans, that encoded by different genes. SOD1 isoform in blood circulation explaining 85% of the SOD activity related to SOD polypeptide. The gene encoding SOD1 polypeptide is located on human chromosome 21q22. and there are five exons and four introns in this area, and the sod1 promoter has a high GC-rich region, as well as TATA box and CCAAT box (Figure 1). Regulation of the SOD genes may play a role in modulating the concentrations of ROS. The compartmentalization and control of SODs at both expression and activity levels contribute to the level of SOD activity and consequently local ROS concentrations.

译文

氧化应激是由于活性氧物质(ROS)或活性氮物质的产生与分解之间的不平衡所致。抗氧化剂系统可能与动脉细胞氧化变化的发展有关,并导致心血管疾病(CVD)的发病机理。超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)是一种抗氧化酶,参与超氧化物阴离子的分解代谢。与ROS相关的特别重要的病理生理事件是脂质的氧化,特别是低密度脂蛋白(LDL)的氧化,这是动脉粥样硬化病变形成的关键过程。冠状动脉疾病(CAD)是世界上主要的死亡原因。尽管认识到传统的CAD危险因素包括吸烟,高血压,糖尿病,肥胖,代谢综合症,缺乏运动和血脂异常,但CAD的发生率仍在上升。动脉粥样硬化现在被认为是一种慢性炎症,可导致CVD。 ROS水平高是动脉粥样硬化斑块形成和血管内皮细胞损伤的结果。 SOD是一种催化超氧化物(O2-)自由基转变为普通分子氧(O2)或过氧化氢(H2O2)的酶,并且在平衡ROS浓度方面起着关键作用。据报道,人类有三种SOD亚型,它们由不同的基因编码。血液循环中的SOD1亚型解释了85%的SOD活性与SOD多肽有关。编码SOD1多肽的基因位于人类21q22号染色体上。该区域有五个外显子和四个内含子,且sod1启动子具有高GC富集区域,以及TATA框和CCAAT框(图1)。 SOD基因的调节可能在调节ROS浓度中起作用。在表达水平和活性水平上对SOD的区室化和控制有助于SOD活性水平,并因此影响局部ROS浓度。