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Lipopolysaccharide

内分泌

关键词内分泌 临床研究术语 内毒素

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Lipopolysaccharide   英 /ˌlʌɪpəʊpɒlɪˈsakərʌɪd/   美 /ˌlʌɪpəʊpɒlɪˈsakərʌɪd/

释    义   n. [有化] 脂多糖

例    句   It recognizes lipopolysaccharide, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. 它识别广泛存在革兰氏阴性菌细胞外膜上的脂多糖。

概述

脂多糖(LPS),也称为脂聚糖和内毒素,是大的分子组成的脂质和多糖的O-抗原,它们存在于革兰氏阴性细菌的外膜中。保持在细菌细胞内,并且仅在破坏细菌细胞壁后才释放。随后的研究表明,从革兰氏阴性菌中释放LPS 不一定需要破坏细菌细胞壁,相反,LPS作为膜囊泡运输的正常生理活性的一部分以下列形式分泌:细菌外膜囊泡(OMV),也可能包含其他毒力因子和蛋白质。组成O抗原:LPS中包含的重复聚糖聚合物称为细菌的O抗原,O多糖或O侧链。O抗原连接至核心寡糖,并包含LPS分子的最外层结构域。O链的组成因菌株

Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation and Immunomodulatory Capacity of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Human Perirenal Adipose Tissue 复制标题

人肾周脂肪间充质基质/干细胞隔离、鉴定、分化和免疫调节能力

发表时间:2019-10-29

影响因子:5.7

作者: Patrick C Baer

期刊:Cells

Recent data have suggested that adipose tissue located in different anatomical locations of the body appear to have distinct cellular compositions and diverse functions. In humans, fat depot-specific differences are clinically relevant owing to the observation that increased abdominal white fat is associated with insulin resistance, while subcutaneous white adipose tissue exerts a protective effect against metabolic syndrome. Para- and perirenal adipose tissue is a fat pad located in the retroperitoneal space. Perirenal fat is separated from pararenal fat by the renal fascia, and surrounds each kidney. It is a collection of adipose tissue located superficial to the renal cortex and is part of the visceral fat, which can be divided into perirenal, gonadal, epicardial, retroperitoneal, omental and mesenteric fat depots. They are composed mainly of white adipose cells that store energy and produce soluble inflammatory cytokines. Perirenal fat shares the same developmental origin as typical visceral fat. However, each white adipose tissue depot can be described as a separate mini-organ, and perirenal fat and typical visceral fat are different in histology, physiology and functions. The vascularization of perirenal adipose tissue grows from branches of the abdominal aorta, which also supplies blood to the kidney cortex. Therefore, effects on renal cells through soluble factor released by cells from the perirenal adipose tissue are possible. Renal adipose tissue has been linked recently to effects on kidney function and blood hypertension and a neuronal link from perirenal adipose tissue to multiple central nervous system’s regions has been shown in animal data. Perirenal tissue is rarely analyzed for viral infections, however MSC from selected organs other than perirenal tissue show susceptibility and permissiveness for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. The object of this study was to describe the isolation and culture of human perirenal adiposederived stromal/stem cells (prASCs) in detail and to characterize cultured cells and their differentiation potential into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and epithelial cells. The present study further investigated the immunomodulatory potential of prASCs after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a mixture of cytokines (cytomix), or infection with HCMV. Whereas, few studies used human prASCs in vitro, there is currently no other study which fully described the isolation, characterization, differentiation and immunomodulatory potential of human prASCs as well as their susceptibility to HCMV.

译文

最新数据表明,位于人体不同解剖位置的脂肪组织似乎具有不同的细胞组成和多种功能。在人类中,由于观察到腹部白色脂肪的增加与胰岛素抵抗相关,而脂肪储库特异性的差异在临床上是相关的,而皮下的白色脂肪组织对代谢综合征具有保护作用。肾旁和肾周围脂肪组织是位于腹膜后间隙的脂肪垫。肾筋膜将肾周脂肪与肾旁脂肪分开,并围绕每个肾脏。它是位于肾皮质表面的脂肪组织的集合,是内脏脂肪的一部分,可分为肾周,性腺,心外膜,腹膜后,网膜和肠系膜脂肪储库。它们主要由存储能量并产生可溶性炎性细胞因子的白色脂肪细胞组成。周围脂肪与典型的内脏脂肪具有相同的发育起源。但是,每个白色脂肪组织库都可以描述为一个单独的微型器官,并且肾周脂肪和典型的内脏脂肪在组织学,生理学和功能上都不同。肾周脂肪组织的血管化从腹主动脉的分支生长,这也为肾皮质提供血液。因此,可能通过细胞从肾周脂肪组织释放的可溶性因子对肾细胞的作用。肾脏脂肪组织最近与肾脏功能和高血压的影响有关,动物数据显示了从肾周围脂肪组织到多个中枢神经系统区域的神经元联系。很少分析周膜组织的病毒感染,但是,除肾周组织以外,来自选定器官的MSC对人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)感染表现出易感性和容许性。这项研究的目的是详细描述人肾周围脂肪基质/干细胞(prASCs)的分离和培养,并表征培养的细胞及其分化为脂肪细胞,软骨细胞,成骨细胞和上皮细胞的潜力。本研究进一步研究了用脂多糖(LPS),脂蛋白酸(LTA),细胞因子混合物(cytomix)或HCMV感染刺激后prASCs的免疫调节潜力。鉴于很少有研究在体外使用人prASC,而目前尚无其他研究充分描述人prASC的分离,表征,分化和免疫调节潜能以及它们对HCMV的敏感性。