Paneth cell Reg3γ enteroid germ-free intestinal stem cell microbiota
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摘要

Paneth cells (PCs) are epithelial cells found in the small intestine, next to intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at the base of the crypts. PCs secrete antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that regulate the commensal gut microbiota. In contrast, little is known regarding how the enteric microbiota reciprocally influences PC function. In this study, we sought to characterize the impact of the enteric microbiota on PC biology in the mouse small intestine. This was done by first enumerating jejunal PCs in germ-free (GF) versus conventionally raised (CR) mice. We next evaluated the possible functional consequences of altered PC biology in these experimental groups by assessing epithelial proliferation, ISC numbers, and the production of AMPs. We found that PC numbers were significantly increased in CR versus GF mice; however, there were no differences in ISC numbers or cycling activity between groups. Of the AMPs assessed, only Reg3γ transcript expression was significantly increased in CR mice. Intriguingly, this increase was abrogated in cultured CR versus GF enteroids, and could not be re-induced with various bacterial ligands. Our findings demonstrate the enteric microbiota regulates PC function by increasing PC numbers and inducing Reg3γ expression, though the latter effect may not involve direct interactions between bacteria and the intestinal epithelium. In contrast, the enteric microbiota does not appear to regulate jejunal ISC census and proliferation. These are critical findings for investigators using GF mice and the enteroid system to study PC and ISC biology.

译文

潘氏细胞 (PCs) 是在小肠中发现的上皮细胞,紧挨着隐窝底部的肠干细胞 (ISCs)。PCs 分泌调节共生肠道菌群的抗微生物肽 (AMPs)。相比之下,对于肠道微生物群如何相互影响 PC 功能知之甚少。在这项研究中,我们试图描述肠道微生物群对小鼠小肠 PC 生物学的影响。这是通过首先在无菌 (GF) 和常规饲养 (CR) 小鼠中枚举空肠 PCs 来实现的。我们接下来通过评估上皮增殖、 ISC 数量和 AMPs 的产生,评估了这些实验组中改变 PC 生物学的可能功能后果。我们发现,与 GF 小鼠相比,CR 小鼠的 PC 数量显著增加; 然而,组间 ISC 数量或循环活动没有差异。在评估的 AMPs 中,只有 reg3 γ 转录本的表达在 CR 小鼠中显著增加。有趣的是,这种增加在培养的 CR 和 GF 肠类中被消除,并且不能用各种细菌配体重新诱导。我们的发现证明了肠道微生物群通过增加 PC 数量和诱导 reg3 γ 表达来调节 PC 功能,尽管后者的作用可能不涉及细菌和肠上皮之间的直接相互作用。相比之下,肠道微生物似乎没有调节空肠 ISC 普查和增殖。这些是研究者使用 GF 小鼠和肠样系统研究 PC 和 ISC 生物学的关键发现。

Intestinal Stem Cells

消化 肠稳态 临床研究术语
概述  :  

肠道干细胞(intestinal stem cells,ISCs)位于肠黏膜隐窝基底部,即基底隐窝是肠道干细胞的细胞库。正常情况下,位于隐窝基底部的肠道干细胞不断向隐窝顶部(肠腔方向)迁移,整个迁移过程大约3-5d,在迁移过程中肠道干细胞分化形成不同的肠黏膜细胞。 生理功能定植在隐窝底部的肠道干细胞(intestinal stem cells,ISCs)不断分裂生成新的肠道干细胞或其子代细胞—过渡扩增细胞(transit amplifying cells,TA细胞),TA细胞在离开

intestinal 英 [ˌɪntes'taɪnl] 美 [ɪnˈtɛstənəl]

释义   adj. 肠的

例句   Normal intestinal absorption is a complex process. 正常的消化道吸收功能是一个复杂的过程。

 

stem 英 [stem] 美 [stem]

释义   n. 干;茎;船首;血统

vt. 阻止;除去…的茎;给…装柄

vi. 阻止;起源于某事物;逆行

例句   But the flow from the stem tip prevents them from doing this.

但是,来自主干顶端的(激素)流会阻止它们这么做。

 

cell 英 [sel] 美 [sel]

释义   n. 细胞;电池;蜂房的巢室;单人小室

vi. 住在牢房或小室中

n. (Cell)人名;(英)塞尔

复数 cells

例句   Inside every cell in all organisms, there are strands of DNA.  所有生物的每个细胞内部都存在DNA分子链。



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