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首页 > 医学词汇大全 > Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea
Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea

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关键词消化 疾病 腹泻

词汇介绍

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解析

antibiotic 英 [,æntɪbaɪ'ɒtɪk] 美 [,æntɪbaɪ'ɑtɪk; ˌæntaɪ-]

释义   adj. 抗生的;抗菌的  n. 抗生素,抗菌素

例句   This can lead to problems with your body resisting antibiotic treatment. 这可能会导致问题,你的身体抵抗抗生素治疗。

 

associated [ə'soʃɪetɪd]

释义  v. 联系  adj. 关联的;联合的

例句   Chills are often associated with fever. 寒颤常伴有发热。

  

diarrhea 英 [,daɪə'riə] 美 [,daɪə'riə]

释义   n. 腹泻,痢疾

例句   Never prepare food for others if you have diarrhea or vomiting.  如果你腹泻或呕吐,千万不要为他人准备食物。


概述

抗生素相关性腹泻(antibiotic associated diarrhea,AAD)主要是指使用抗生素后导致肠道菌群紊乱而引起的腹泻,同时也包括抗生素本身的毒副作用导致的腹泻。近年来由于抗生素广泛使用,甚至滥用,AAD有明显增多。 病因及发病机制抗生素相关性腹泻的病因、发病机制复杂,目前尚未完全清楚,常见的原因有:(1)抗生素使用后的肠道菌群紊乱;(2)抗生素干扰糖和胆汁酸代谢;(3)抗生素的变态反应,毒性作用对肠道黏膜的直接作用。(4)药理效应致肠道动力的改变&nb

Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomized clinical trial复制标题

Reuteri乳杆菌DSM 17938预防儿童抗生素相关性腹泻: 一项随机临床试验

发表时间:2018-08-24

影响因子:6.4

作者: M. Kołodziej

期刊:Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) refers to unexplained diarrhoea that occurs in association with antibiotic therapy, after the exclusion of other possible aetiologies [1]. The frequency of AAD varies depending on the definitions used; it ranges from 4.3% to 80%, with a median incidence of 22%, and the mean age of patients with AAD ranges from 18 to 48 months [2]. In children, the main risk factors for AAD include the age of the child and the type of antibiotic used [2]. AAD may occur just a few hours after antibiotic administration or up to 8 weeks after antibiotic administration [3], and it is associated with increased costs and length of hospital stay [4]. The mechanism of AAD is not fully understood. One of the potential mechanisms is a direct effect of the antibiotics on the intestinal mucosa, resulting in alterations in the gut microbiota  composition and the overgrowth of pathogens. Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious cause of AAD[5]. However, other pathogens such as Staphylococcus, Candida, Enterobacteriaceae and Klebsiella, may be involved[6]. The clinical manifestations of AAD range from mild diarrhoea to colitis or fulminant pseudomembranous colitis [7]. Compared with adults, children typically become symptomatic more rapidly. However, their recovery is quicker, they suffer fewer complications, and their duration of disease is shorter compared with adults [2].

译文

抗生素相关性腹泻(AAD)是指在排除其他可能的病因后与抗生素治疗相关的无法解释的腹泻[1]。 AAD的频率根据使用的定义而有所不同。它的范围从4.3%到80%,中位数发生率为22%,AAD患者的平均年龄从18到48个月不等[2]。在儿童中,AAD的主要危险因素包括儿童的年龄和所用抗生素的类型[2]。 AAD可能在抗生素给药后数小时或抗生素给药后8周内发生[3],并且与费用增加和住院时间长短有关[4]。 AAD的机制尚未完全了解。潜在的机制之一是抗生素对肠粘膜的直接作用,导致肠道菌群组成的改变和病原体的过度生长。艰难梭菌是AAD最常见的感染原因[5]。然而,其他病原体如葡萄球菌,念珠菌,肠杆菌科和克雷伯菌也可能参与[6]。 AAD的临床表现从轻度腹泻到结肠炎或暴发性伪膜性结肠炎[7]。与成人相比,儿童通常更容易出现症状。然而,与成人相比,它们的康复更快,并发症更少,病程更短[2]。