摘要

Hepatitis B virus infection is considered chronic when levels of viral surface antigen in blood remain elevated for months, failing to elicit concomitant antibody production. Disease progression can be insidious, with chronically infected individuals remaining asymptomatic for decades. Consequently, a third of liver cirrhosis cases and half of hepatocellular carcinoma cases are attributed to chronic hepatitis B induced liver damage (Shepard et al., 2006). Globally, 240-360 million individuals have chronic hepatitis B (Shepard et al., 2006; World Health Organization, 2015). By comparison, 35 million individuals are estimated to be infected with HIV globally (Buell et al., 2015). While preexposure vaccination is the most reliable mechanism for halting hepatitis viral transmission, chronic hepatitis B remains highly endemic (i.e. >8% of the total population)in a number of Asian and African countries. Fortunately, effective nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors are available for the required lifelong treatment of chronic hepatitis B (Shepard et al., 2006).

译文

当血液中的病毒表面抗原水平持续升高数月而未能引起抗体产生时,乙型肝炎病毒感染被认为是慢性的。疾病的发展可能是隐蔽的,慢性感染的人数十年来一直无症状。因此,三分之一的肝硬化病例和一半的肝细胞癌病例归因于慢性乙型肝炎引起的肝损害(Shepard等,2006)。在全球范围内,有240-3.6亿人患有慢性乙型肝炎(Shepard等,2006;世界卫生组织,2015)。相比之下,全球估计有3500万人感染了艾滋病毒(Buell等,2015)。尽管暴露前疫苗接种是制止肝炎病毒传播的最可靠机制,但在许多亚洲和非洲国家,慢性乙型肝炎仍然是高度流行的疾病(即占总人口的8%)。幸运的是,有效的核苷酸逆转录酶抑制剂可用于慢性乙型肝炎的终生治疗(Shepard等,2006)。

Entecavir

消化 慢性乙型肝炎 药物
概述  :  

恩替卡韦(ETV)是当前慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)患者抗病毒治疗的一线药物之一。ETV为环戊酰鸟苷类似物,在体内转化为三磷酸盐活性成分,从3个环节抑制HBV复制:HBV聚合酶的启动、前基因组RNA逆转录为负链DNA以及HBV DNA正链的合成。ETV经口服后,可迅速吸收,约0.5~1.5小时后达到血浆峰浓度,生物利用度>70%。进食标准高脂餐或低脂餐的同时口服0.5 mg ETV会导致药物吸收的轻微延迟,因此应空腹服用ETV(服药前后2小时不应进食)。ETV经肾脏排泄。药代

entecavir

释义   n. 恩替卡韦

例句   Blood samples taken from the patient before taking entecavir had no M184V mutations in the HIV. 在服用恩替卡韦之前,病人血液样本中的艾滋病毒没有M184V突变。


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