微信扫码关注“小狗文献”

即刻体验更多权益

文献多,下载快,翻译准

Amylase

消化

关键词消化 临床研究术语 胰腺炎

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

amylase 英 [ˈæmɪleɪz] 美 [ˈæmɪleɪs]

释义   n. [生化] 淀粉酶

例句   Starch degradation was the result of synergism of amylase and starch phosphorylase. 淀粉的降解是淀粉酶和淀粉磷酸化酶协同作用的结果。


概述

淀粉酶(amylase,AMY/AMS)是在食物多糖类化合物消化过程中起重要作用的水解酶。人和动物体中AMY为α-AMY,植物中为β-AMY。人体中胰淀粉酶(P-AMY)含量最多,其次为唾液淀粉酶(S-AMY)。AMY是胰腺外分泌功能的辅助诊断指标,分子量小、半寿期短(约2小时)易从肾脏排出,因而胰腺等病变时,血清及尿液AMY可以增高,但持续时间很短。 检测方法目前应用较多的是以修饰麦芽七糖为底物的方法。 正常值成人血清AMY:35~135U/L。 临床意义与评

A glycoprotein α-amylase inhibitor from Withania somnifera differentially inhibits various α-amylases and affects the growth and development of Tribolium castaneum复制标题

一种糖蛋白 α-淀粉酶抑制剂不同程度地抑制了各种 α-淀粉酶,并影响了七叶树的生长和发育。

发表时间:2016-10-22

影响因子:3.3

作者: Sainath S. Kasar

期刊:Pest Management Science

Carbohydrates, an inevitable constituent of human diet worldwide are derived from a variety of crop plants.1 Along with humans, a number of pre and post-harvest insect pests fulfil their energy requirement through starchy tissues of crop plants. Larval and/or adult stages of these insects feed on various plant parts including seeds, leaves, stem, flower parts and roots to sustain larval growth and longevity of adults.2 Herbivorous insect pests are considered as a major competitors of human for agriculture resources contributing nearly 37% loss of agricultural produce (especially post-harvest) worldwide.3, 4 Many phytophagus insects including stored grain pests are responsible for massive losses by lowering germination percentage and overall nutritional quality of grains.5 Well known devastating stored grain pest red flour beetle, T. castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) largely depends on starch and requires highly active α-amylase in their gut for survival.6 A digestive enzyme, α-Amylase, responsible for catalysing the hydrolysis of α-D-(1,4)-glucan linkages in carbohydrates makes the insect capable of deriving energy from starch.7 Improved digestive capacity of insects can be attributed to presence of different isoforms of α-amylases and this ultimately offers increased sustainability to the insect in diverse conditions. Though, proteinases also contribute in insect digestion, α-amylases remain dominant as they stay active during non-feeding stage of the insect assuring its survival.8-10 In the light of these facts, it is wise to use bioinsecticides having α-amylase inhibitor action as far as management of T. castaneum is concern.

译文

碳水化合物是全球人类饮食中不可避免的成分,其来源是多种农作物。1与人类一起,许多收获前和收获后的害虫都通过作物的淀粉状组织满足其能量需求。这些昆虫的幼虫和/或成虫阶段以各种植物部分为食,包括种子,叶片,茎,花的部分和根部,以维持幼虫的生长和成年后的寿命。2食草害虫被认为是人类农业资源竞争的主要竞争者。在世界范围内,农产品(尤其是收获后)的农业损失近37%。3,4许多植物食性昆虫,包括储藏的谷物害虫,都通过降低谷物的发芽率和整体营养质量而造成了巨大的损失。5甲虫T.castaneum(Herbst)(鞘翅目:Tenebrionidae)在很大程度上依赖于淀粉,并且在肠道中需要高活性的α-淀粉酶才能生存。6一种消化酶α-淀粉酶,负责催化α-D-(碳水化合物中的1,4)-葡聚糖键使昆虫能够从淀粉中获取能量。7昆虫消化能力的提高可归因于存在不同的i α-淀粉酶的形式,最终在不同条件下为昆虫提供了更大的可持续性。虽然蛋白酶也可促进昆虫的消化,但α-淀粉酶仍处于主导地位,因为它们在昆虫的非摄食阶段可保持活性,从而确保其存活。8-10鉴于这些事实,使用具有α-淀粉酶的生物杀虫剂是明智的。就锥栗的管理而言,抑制剂的作用是值得关注的。