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首页 > 医学词汇大全 > Cardiac Arrhythmia
Cardiac Arrhythmia

心血管

关键词心血管 疾病 心律失常

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Cardiac /'kɑːdɪæk/  /'kɑrdɪæk/

释义   adj. 心脏的,心脏病的;(与)贲门(有关)的

n. (非正式)心脏病患者;强心剂
例句   Sudden cardiac arrest can strike anyone at any time, no matter their age or health status. 心脏骤停可以袭击任何人在任何时候,不管他们的年龄或健康状况。


Arrhythmia /eɪ'rɪðmɪə/ /ə'rɪθmɪə/

释义   n. 心律不齐,[内科] 心律失常

例句   Arrhythmia is also considered a form of heart disease. 心律失常也被认为是某种形式的心脏病

概述

心率失常是指心脏冲动的频率、节律、起源部位、传导速度和激动次数的异常。分为两大类:快速型心律失常与慢性心律失常。常见病因器质性心脏病、电解质紊乱、药物中毒、心脏以外的疾病、自主神经异常诊断根据心率失常发作时心率、节律、起止特点、持续时间和伴随症状等并结合心电图检查常可明确诊断,必要时可行希氏束电图,心腔内点图等电生理检查。临床表现期前收缩:又称过早搏动(简称早搏)。阵发性心动过速:阵发性心动过速系阵发出现的迅速而规律的异位心律。扑动与颤动:异位节律点发出冲动时,频率超过阵发性心动过速形成扑动

Noninvasive cardiac arrhythmia ablation with particle beams复制标题

粒子束无创性心律失常消融

发表时间:2018-11-13

影响因子:3.2

作者: Christian Graeff

期刊:Med Phys

Cardiac arrhythmias are a major health burden, associated with reduced quality of life and substantial morbidity and mortality. Current therapy includes moderately effective medication and catheter-based ablation of arrhythmogenic substrates in the heart. Catheter interventions frequently have to be repeated due to recurrent arrhythmia, can have rare but severe side-effects and are less suited especially for potentially lethal left ventricular tachycardia. Noninvasive alternatives are therefore warranted. Photon and ion beam radiotherapy has been studied in animal models and first patient cases have been reported using photons. Ion beams might offer the possibility to greatly reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue, including critical cardiac substructures. Based on a recently conducted animal study, we report advantages and disadvantages of 4D-ion beam therapy, and strategies necessary for a clinical transition. Motion management of both respiration and heartbeat are discussed, as well as range uncertainty resulting from both regular motion and interfractional anatomic changes. Image guidance both in 3D and 4D has to be employed for a safe irradiation, but also population-based data on motion variability and time behavior of interfractional changes are necessary. Range verification could play a crucial role at least during development of clinical protocols. For clinical realization, it appears necessary to suppress or conformally mitigate the large respiratory motion to avoid normal tissue complications. Cardiac motion has to be incorporated into treatment planning, either through adequate range-considering internal margins or through more conformal strategies such as ECG-based gating or even 4D-optimization. The latter strategies would necessitate online 4D image guidance.

译文

心律失常是一种主要的健康负担,与降低生活质量和大量发病率和死亡率有关。目前的疗法包括适度有效的药物和基于导管的心脏中致心律失常基质的消融。由于复发性心律失常,导管介入常常需要重复进行,可能有罕见但严重的副作用,特别是对于可能致命的左心室心动过速不太适合。因此有必要采用无创替代方案。已经在动物模型中研究了光子和离子束放射疗法,并且已经使用光子报告了第一个患者病例。离子束可能会大大减少周围健康组织的剂量,包括关键的心脏子结构。基于最近进行的动物研究,我们报告了4D离子束治疗的优缺点,以及临床转变所需的策略。讨论了呼吸和心跳的运动管理,以及由常规运动和分级间解剖变化引起的距离不确定性。 3D和4D中的图像引导必须用于安全照射,但也需要基于人群的运动变异性和分数间变化的时间行为数据。范围验证至少在临床方案的开发过程中起着至关重要的作用。对于临床实现,似乎需要抑制或共形地减轻大的呼吸运动以避免正常的组织并发症。必须将心脏运动纳入治疗计划,或者通过足够的范围 - 考虑内部边缘或通过更基本的策略,例如基于ECG的门控或甚至4D优化。后一种策略需要在线4D图像引导。