Extracorporeal 英 /,ekstrəkɔː'pɔːrɪəl/
释义 adj. 身体外面的
例句 In some cases, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy may be combined with other forms of treatment.
membrane 英 /'membreɪn/ 美 /'mɛmbren/
释义 n. 膜；薄膜；羊皮纸
例句 Once the toxin perforates the host membrane, ions begin to leak out of the cell.
释义 n. 以氧处理，氧化作用
例句 It shows that the oxygenation of the sodium nitrate is obvious to cerium.
作者： Jason Ali
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a type of prolonged mechanical cardiopulmonary support that is usually delivered in the intensive care unit. ECMO should only be performed in centers with the appropriate equipment and expertise. The only absolute contraindaication to ECMO is a pre-existing condition which is incompatible with recovery (severe neurologic injury, end stage malignancy). Relative contraindications include uncontrollable bleeding and very poor prognosis from the primary condition. Results in respiratory failure are better when ECMO is instituted within seven days of intubation. ECMO is being increasingly used. ECMO should only by performed by clinicians with training and experience in its initiation, maintenance, and discontinuation. During ECMO, blood is drained from the native vascular system, circulated outside the body by a mechanical pump, and reinfused into the circulation. While outside the body, the blood passes through an oxygenator and heat exchanger. In the oxygenator, hemoglobin becomes fully saturated with oxygen, while carbon dioxide (CO2) is removed. Oxygenation is determined by flow rate, where elimination of CO2 can be controlled by adjusting the rate of countercurrent gas flow through the oxygenator. Once it has been determined that ECMO will be initiated, the patient is anticoagulated. Cannulae are then inserted and the patient is connected to the ECMO circuit. The blood flow is increased until respiratory and hemodynamic parameters are satisfactory. Once the initial respiratory and hemodynamic goals have been achieved, blood flow is maintained, ventilator support is minimized, and vasoactive drugs are decreased to minimal levels. Frequent reassessment and adjustments are usually necessary.