首页 > 医学词汇大全 > Emphysema
Emphysema

呼吸

关键词呼吸 疾病 末梢肺组织疾病

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

Emphysema   /'ɛmfɪ'simə/ 

       n. [临床] 气肿;肺气肿

同根词   emphysematous adj.肺气肿的

       Emphysema — A disease of small airways or lung parenchyma? 肺气肿——是小气道、还是肺实质的疾病呢?

概述

疾病概述 肺气肿是末梢肺组织(呼吸性细支气管、肺泡管、肺泡囊和肺泡)因含气量过多伴肺泡间隔破坏,肺组织弹性减弱,导致肺体积膨大、通气功能降低的一种疾病状态,是支气管和肺部疾病最常见的并发症。 致病因素或病理机制肺气肿常继发于其他肺阻塞性疾病,其中最常见的是慢性支气管炎。此外,吸烟、空气污染和肺尘埃沉着病(尘肺)等也是常见的发病原因。其发病机制主要与下列因素有关。(1)阻塞性通气障碍:慢性支气管炎时,因慢性炎症使小支气管和细支气管壁结构遭受破坏及以纤维化为主的增生性改变导致管壁增厚、管腔

Lung volume reduction for emphysema复制标题

肺减容术治疗肺气肿

发表时间:2017-02-27

影响因子:23.0

作者: Pallav L Shah

期刊:Lancet Respir Med

Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction.

译文

晚期肺气肿是一种肺病,肺泡毛细血管单位被破坏,支持组织丢失。减少气体交换和气道动力学变化的综合影响会损害呼气气流并导致进行性空气滞留。药理学疗法的效果有限。手术切除肺部大部分被破坏的部位可以改善肺功能和运动能力,但其益处可以通过显着的发病率来缓和。这个问题促使人们寻求新的肺减容方法。使用支气管镜技术(包括瓣膜,线圈,蒸汽热消融和硬化剂)的替代性微创方法一直处于这些发展的最前沿。在选定的患者中插入支气管内瓣膜可以具有与肺减容手术相当的益处。支气管内线圈可能在治疗肺气肿患者中具有严重的过度充气和较少的实质破坏。