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bronchiectasis

呼吸

关键词呼吸 疾病 临床疾病

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

bronchiectasis   英 /,brɒŋkɪ'ektəsɪs/   美 /,brɑŋkɪ'ɛktəsɪs/

       n. [内科] 支气管扩张

       Chronic sinus infections, bronchiectasis and allergies also increase the risk of repeated episodes of acute bronchitis. 慢性鼻窦感染,支气管扩张,过敏也会增加急性支气管炎反复发作的风险。

概述

支气管扩张症是以局部支气管不可逆性解剖结构异常为特征,是由于支气管及其周围肺组织慢性化脓性炎症和纤维化,使支气管壁的肌肉和弹性组织破坏,导致支气管变形及持久扩张。典型的临床症状有慢性咳嗽、咳大量脓痰和反复咯血。诊断  根据反复咯脓痰、咯血的病史和既往有诱发支气管扩张的呼吸道感染病史,HRCT显示支气管扩张的异常影像学改变,即可明确诊断为支气管扩张。纤支镜检查或局部支气管造影,可明确出血、扩张或阻塞的部位。还可经纤支镜进行局部灌洗,采取灌洗液标本进行涂片、细菌学和细胞学检查,进一步协

Bronchiectasis in COPD patients: more than a comorbidity?复制标题

COPD患者的支气管扩张: 不仅仅是一种合并症?

发表时间:2019-05-12

影响因子:3.3

作者: Martinez-Garcia MA

期刊:Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis

Computed tomography scan images have been used to identify different radiological COPD phenotypes based on the presence and severity of emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is defined as an abnormal dilation of the bronchi, usually as a result of chronic airway inflammation and/or infection. The prevalence of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD is high, especially in advanced stages. The identification of bronchiectasis in COPD has been defined as a different clinical COPD phenotype with greater symptomatic severity, more frequent chronic bronchial infection and exacerbations, and poor prognosis. A causal association has not yet been proven, but it is biologically plausible that COPD, and particularly the infective and exacerbator COPD phenotypes, could be the cause of bronchiectasis without any other known etiology, beyond any mere association or comorbidity. The study of the relationship between COPD and bronchiectasis could have important clinical implications, since both diseases have different and complementary therapeutic approaches. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the development of bronchiectasis in COPD, and clinical trials with treatments aimed at reducing bacterial loads should be conducted to investigate their impact on the reduction of exacerbations and improvements in the long-term evolution of the disease.

译文

计算机断层扫描图像已被用于根据肺气肿,支气管壁增厚和支气管扩张的存在和严重程度来识别不同的放射性COPD表型。支气管扩张被定义为支气管的异常扩张,通常是慢性气道炎症和/或感染的结果。 COPD患者支气管扩张的患病率很高,尤其是晚期。 COPD中支气管扩张的鉴定被定义为不同的临床COPD表型,其具有更大的症状严重性,更频繁的慢性支气管感染和恶化以及预后不良。因果关联尚未得到证实,但在生物学上似乎合理,COPD,特别是感染和加重COPD表型,可能是支气管扩张的原因,没有任何其他已知的病因,超出任何单纯的关联或合并症。 COPD与支气管扩张之间关系的研究可能具有重要的临床意义,因为这两种疾病具有不同的和互补的治疗方法。需要纵向研究来调查COPD中支气管扩张的发展,并且应该进行旨在减少细菌负荷的治疗的临床试验,以研究它们对减少恶化和改善疾病的长期演变的影响。