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首页 > 医学词汇大全 > lung cancer
lung cancer

呼吸

关键词呼吸 疾病 临床疾病

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

lung   /lʌŋ/   /lʌŋ/

       n. 肺;呼吸器

同根词   n. lunger 肺结核患者

       There is at least a vaccine against one major cause of bacterial lung infections, pneumococcus, recommended for those at risk of flu complications by many health agencies. 许多卫生机构建议,对于一些肺部感染细菌的主要起因,如肺炎球菌,需至少对应一种疫苗,并建议对那些有可能出现流感并发症的人接种这种疫苗。

 

cancer   /'kænsə/   /kænsə/

       n. 癌症;恶性肿瘤

同根词   adj. cancerous 癌的;生癌的;像癌的

       His grandfather was one of the pioneers in cancer research. 他的外祖父是一位癌症研究领域的先驱。

概述

原发性支气管肺癌,简称肺癌,为起源于支气管黏膜或腺体的恶性肿瘤。非小细胞型肺癌(NSCLC)包括鳞状细胞癌(鳞癌)、腺癌、大细胞癌,与小细胞癌相比,其癌细胞生长分裂较慢,扩散转移相对较晚。小细胞肺癌(SCLC)是一种恶性程度高、病情进展快、预后差、易复发的难治性癌症。肺癌目前仍是世界上发病率和致死率处于首位的恶性肿瘤。有资料显示,全世界每年新发肺癌病例160万,占所有恶性肿瘤的13%,因肺癌死亡的病例每年140万,占所有恶性肿瘤致死病例的18%。诊断手段早期肺癌少有症状,75%以上的患者在确

Lung cancer epigenetics: From knowledge to applications复制标题

肺癌表观遗传学: 从知识到应用

发表时间:2018-08-09

影响因子:9.7

作者: Duruisseaux M

期刊:Semin. Cancer Biol.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Advances in our understanding of the genomics of lung cancer have led to substantial progress in the treatment of specific molecular subsets. Immunotherapy also emerges as a major breakthrough in lung cancer treatment. However, challenges remain as a consensual approach for early lung cancer detection remains elusive while primary or secondary drug resistance eventually leads to treatment failure in all patients with advanced disease. Furthermore, a large portion of patients are still treated with conventional chemotherapy that is only modestly effective. The last two decades have seen exponential developments in the epigenetic understanding of lung cancer. Epigenetic alterations in DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, chromatin modeling and post transcriptional regulators are key events in each step of lung cancer pathogenesis. Here, we review the central role epigenetic disruptions play in lung cancer carcinogenesis and the acquisition of cancerous phenotype and aggressive behavior as well as in the resistance to therapy. Epigenetic disruptions could represent reliable biomarkers for lung cancer risk assessment, early diagnosis, prognosis stratification, molecular classification and prediction of treatment efficacy. The therapeutic potential of epigenetics targeted drugs in combination with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and/or immunotherapy is currently being intensively investigated. We suggest that integration of tissue-derived or circulating epigenetic biomarkers and epidrugs in clinical trial design will translate epigenetic knowledge of lung cancer into the clinic and improve lung cancer patient outcomes.

译文

肺癌是全球癌症相关死亡的主要原因。我们对肺癌基因组学理解的进展已导致特定分子亚群治疗的实质性进展。免疫疗法也成为肺癌治疗的重大突破。然而,挑战仍然存在,因为早期肺癌检测的共识方法仍然难以捉摸,而原发性或继发性耐药性最终导致所有晚期疾病患者的治疗失败。此外,大部分患者仍然使用仅适度有效的常规化疗进行治疗。过去二十年来,肺癌的表观遗传理解呈指数级发展。 DNA甲基化,非编码RNA表达,染色质建模和转录后调节因子的表观遗传改变是肺癌发病机理的每个步骤中的关键事件。在这里,我们回顾了表观遗传中断在肺癌致癌过程中的核心作用,以及癌症表型和攻击行为的获得以及对治疗的抵抗。表观遗传中断可以代表肺癌风险评估,早期诊断,预后分层,分子分类和治疗效果预测的可靠生物标志物。目前正在深入研究表观遗传学靶向药物与化疗,靶向治疗和/或免疫疗法相结合的治疗潜力。我们建议在临床试验设计中整合组织衍生或循环表观遗传生物标志物和epidrugs将肺癌的表观遗传知识转化为临床并改善肺癌患者的预后。