微信扫码关注“小狗文献”

即刻体验更多权益

文献多,下载快,翻译准

首页 > 医学词汇大全 > pneumonia
pneumonia

呼吸

关键词呼吸 疾病 临床疾病

词汇介绍

拓展阅读

解析

pneumonia   英 /njuː'məʊnɪə/   美 /nʊ'monɪə/

       n. 肺炎

同根词   adj. pneumonic 肺的;肺炎的

       You have diagnosed an infant or child with pneumonia. How do you decide if they need admission? 你刚刚诊断一个婴儿或儿童患有肺炎。如何决定患儿需不需要住院治疗?

概述

肺炎是指终末气道、肺泡和肺间质的炎症,可由病原微生物、理化因素、免疫损伤、过敏及药物所致。细菌性肺炎是最常见的肺炎,也是最常见的感染性疾病之一。在抗生素应用以前,细菌性肺炎对儿童及老年人的健康威胁极大,抗生素的出现及发展曾一度使肺炎病死率明显下降。但近年来,尽管应用强力的抗生素和有效的疫苗,肺炎的病死率没有降低,甚至有所上升。诊断  1、确定肺炎诊断首先必须把肺炎与呼吸道感染区别开来。呼吸道感染虽然有咳嗽、咳痰和发热等症状,但有其特点,上、下呼吸道感染无肺实质浸润,胸部X线检查可鉴

Clinical and Pathophysiological Overview of Acinetobacter Infections: a Century of Challenges复制标题

不动杆菌感染的临床和病理生理学概述: 挑战的世纪

发表时间:2019-01-08

影响因子:17.8

作者: Wong Darren

期刊:Clin. Microbiol. Rev.

The two most common clinical manifestations of A. baumannii are nosocomial pneumonia and bacteremia. Nosocomial pneumonia occurs as a result of aspiration. In particular, the presence of an endotracheal tube creates an ideal nidus for the environmental transmission of Acinetobacter, which avidly adheres to plastic and can establish biofilms on the tube . Aspiration of droplets of Acinetobacter directly into the alveoli of mechanically ventilated patients circumvent natural host barriers, allowing for establishment of infection in tissue. Similarly, A. baumannii bloodstream infections typically occur in the presence of a central venous catheter or secondarily due to extensive pneumonia, facilitating dissemination. Other well-described manifestations of A. baumannii include urinary tract infections (typically associated with urinary catheters or percutaneous nephrostomy tubes), wound infections or osteomyelitis (typically postsurgical or trauma related), endocarditis, and meningitis (typically postsurgical or in the presence of a ventriculostomy).

译文

鲍氏不动杆菌最常见的两种临床表现是医院内肺炎和菌血症。由于误吸,医院获得性肺炎。特别是,气管导管的存在为不动杆菌的环境传播创造了理想的环境,其不仅粘附在塑料上并且可以在管上形成生物膜。将不动杆菌液滴直接吸入机械通气患者的肺泡中,绕过天然宿主屏障,允许在组织中建立感染。类似地,鲍曼不动杆菌血流感染通常在中心静脉导管存在下发生,或者其次由于广泛的肺炎,促进传播。其他明确描述的鲍曼不动杆菌的表现包括尿路感染(通常与导尿管或经皮肾造瘘管相关),伤口感染或骨髓炎(通常与术后或创伤有关),心内膜炎和脑膜炎(通常是术后或存在脑室)。