摘要

Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is critical to the control and elimination of tuberculosis disease (TB) in the United States. In 2011, CDC recommended a short-course combination regimen of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 weeks (3HP) by directly observed therapy (DOT) for treatment of LTBI, with limitations for use in children aged <12 years and persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). CDC identified the use of 3HP in those populations, as well as self-administration of the 3HP regimen, as areas to address in updated recommendations. In 2017, a CDC Work Group conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of the 3HP regimen using methods adapted from the Guide to Community Preventive Services. In total, 19 articles representing 15 unique studies were included in the meta-analysis, which determined that 3HP is as safe and effective as other recommended LTBI regimens and achieves substantially higher treatment completion rates. In July 2017, the Work Group presented the meta-analysis findings to a group of TB experts, and in December 2017, CDC solicited input from the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) and members of the public for incorporation into the final recommendations. CDC continues to recommend 3HP for treatment of LTBI in adults and now recommends use of 3HP 1) in persons with LTBI aged 2-17 years; 2) in persons with LTBI who have HIV infection, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and are taking antiretroviral medications with acceptable drug-drug interactions with rifapentine; and 3) by DOT or self-administered therapy (SAT) in persons aged ≥2 years.

译文

在美国,潜伏性结核感染 (LTBI) 的治疗对于控制和消除结核病 (TB) 至关重要。2011,CDC 通过直接观察疗法 (DOT) 推荐了一种每周一次的异烟肼和利福喷丁的短期联合方案,用于治疗 LTBI,疗程为 12 周 (3HP)。限制用于 <12 岁的儿童和人类免疫缺陷病毒 (HIV) 感染者 (1)。疾病预防控制中心将 3HP 在这些人群中的使用以及 3HP 方案的自我管理确定为更新建议中需要解决的领域。2017,疾病预防控制中心的一个工作组使用改编自《社区预防服务指南》的方法对 3HP 方案进行了系统回顾和荟萃分析。总共有 19 篇代表 15 项独特研究的文章被纳入荟萃分析,该分析确定 3HP 与其他推荐的 LTBI 方案一样安全有效,并实现了大幅更高的治疗完成率。2017年7月,工作组向一组结核病专家提交了荟萃分析结果,2017年12月,CDC 征求了消除结核病咨询委员会 (ACET) 的意见和公众纳入最终建议。疾病预防控制中心继续推荐 3HP 用于成人 LTBI 治疗,现在建议在 2-17 岁的 LTBI 患者中使用 3HP 1); 2) 在感染了艾滋病毒的 LTBI 患者中, 包括获得性免疫缺陷综合征 (艾滋病),并且正在服用与利福喷丁具有可接受药物-药物相互作用的抗逆转录病毒药物; 和 3)在 ≥ 2 岁的人群中,通过 DOT 或自我给药治疗 (SAT)。

Isoniazid

呼吸 抗结核药 药物
概述  :  

药物概述 异烟肼是异烟酸的肼类衍生物,水溶性好且性质稳定,具有杀菌力强、不良反应少、可以口服且价格低廉的特点。异烟肼对结核杆菌具有高度的选择性,对生长旺盛的活动期结核杆菌有强大的杀灭作用,是治疗活动性结核的首选药物。对静止期结核杆菌无杀灭作用而仅有抑菌作用,故清除药物后,结核杆菌可恢复正常的增殖活动。其作用强度与渗入到病灶部位的浓度有关,低浓度时有抑菌作用,高浓度时有杀菌作用,其最低抑菌浓度为0.025-0.050mg/L。 作用机制至今尚未完全阐明,目前有以下几种观点:①抑制分枝菌酸

Isoniazid   英  /,aɪsə(ʊ)'naɪəzɪd/   美  /,aɪso'naɪəzɪd/ 

释    义   n. 异烟肼(抗结核药)

例    句   The standard treatment involves Isoniazid and Rifampicin being given for at least six months. 标准治疗涉及考虑给予异烟肼和利福平至少六个月。

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