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Pneumoconiosis

呼吸

关键词呼吸 疾病 职业性肺疾病

词汇介绍

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解析

Pneumoconiosis   英 /,njuːmə(ʊ)kəʊnɪ'əʊsɪs/   美 /,njʊmə,konɪ'osɪs/

释    义   n. 尘肺病,肺尘埃沉着病

同根词   pneumonoconiosis n. [医] 肺尘埃沉着病

例    句   For instance, by 2020, 95% of workers who are exposed to occupational risks for pneumoconiosis must have health checks, and 80% of workers in the coal, metal, and construction industries should be covered by work-related injury insurance. 例如,到2020年,95%的面临尘肺职业风险的工人必须进行健康检查,80%的煤炭、金属和建筑行业工人应该参加工伤保险。

概述

疾病概述 肺尘埃沉着症简称尘肺,是因长期吸入有害粉尘并沉积于肺内所引起的以肺广泛纤维化为主要病变的肺疾病。本病伴有肺功能损害,常为职业性肺疾病。根据沉积粉尘的化学性质,可将肺尘埃沉着症分为无机尘埃沉着症和有机尘埃沉着症。国内常见的是无机尘埃沉着症,主要有硅沉着症、石棉沉着症和煤沉着症等。有机尘埃沉着症多由真菌代谢产物或动物性蛋白质、细菌产物引起,如农民肺、棉尘肺、麦芽肺等。 (一)肺硅沉着病肺硅沉着病简称硅肺或矽肺,是因长期吸人含大量游离二氧化硅(SiO2)的粉尘微粒而引起的以硅结节形

Improving occupational health in China复制标题

改善中国职业卫生

发表时间:2019-08-10

影响因子:59.1

作者: The Lancet

期刊:Lancet

China has the largest working population in the world—about 776 million in 2018, and most workers spend half their lives working. The Chinese Government prioritized occupational health in the action plan of Healthy China 2030 as one of its 15 major health projects. Last week, the National Health Commission (NHC) announced the latest official data on the country’s occupational health status and unveiled China’s strategy to address the challenges in occupational health. More than 975 000 cases of occupational illness occurred in 2018, and 90% of reported occupational diseases were pneumoconiosis. Of those sampled in 2018, about 12 million businesses presented occupational health risks, with more than 200 million workers exposed to multiple risks, including dust, chemicals, and poison. However, the actual burden of occupational diseases in China is likely to be underestimated because of the low frequency of occupational health checks and the narrow range of diseases defined in the occupational diseases list.

译文

中国是全球最大的劳动人口,2018年约为7.76亿,大多数工人一生都在工作。中国政府在《健康中国2030》行动计划中将职业卫生列为其15个重大卫生项目之一。上周,国家卫生委员会(NHC)公布了该国职业健康状况的最新官方数据,并公布了中国应对职业健康挑战的战略。 2018年发生超过97.5万例职业病病例,报告的职业病中有90%为尘肺病。在2018年抽样的企业中,约有1200万企业存在职业健康风险,超过2亿的工人面临着包括粉尘,化学物质和毒药在内的多种风险。但是,由于职业健康检查的频率低和职业病清单中所定义的疾病范围狭窄,中国的职业病实际负担可能被低估了。